Research categorised under the spearhead Media & Visual Studies investigates the production, content and reception of mass media and other types of visual communication (e.g. TV, cinema, photography, print and new media). On the production side, both economic and political processes are studied from a historical perspective. The processes via which these societal dynamics regulate and control mass media are investigated in an international context, comparing media policies and the influence of globalisation, digitalisation and commercialisation. Next, specific media content is analysed, focusing on textual, visual/formal and thematic characteristics. Both fictional (e.g. movies, series) and non-fictional (e.g. news, education, scientific communication) content types are studied, leading to insights into how media such as TV and cinema represent social aspects such as gender, ethnicity, culture and nation. Finally, the group investigates how media users interpret and use media content, and especially how they construct meaning from media.