Alternative Forms of Citizenship

Thursday 27th April, Morning (10:00h-12:45h)

This panel discusses a selection of alternative forms of citizenship as they emerge from the discussions in the work packages.

1. Paradigm shift from mobility to stability

The overarching paradigm of European citizenship is mobility and freedom of movement. Most of the rights in the specific bundle of EU-citizenship are rights of „movers“. The purpose of European citizenship is seen in the facilitation of moving across the EU. Under this guise any formal or substantive barrier to mobility is eo ipso seen as a barrier to European citizenship. In light of this paradigm, improving EU citizenship means to remove a maximum of formal and substantive obstacles for the movers and to guarantee movement across borders of EU member states without loss of rights. The idea of this first section is not to curtail or abolish freedom of movement as a formal individual right. However, we propose to question whether mobility should be the overarching paradigm of EU citizenship. WP3, WP4 and WP7 have, from different angles, shed a different light on this matter. In WP3 and WP4 historical and comparative studies of multi-layered systems of citizenship show that federal arrangements, prioritizing local self-government, have successfully accommodated rival claims to citizenship, often at the expense of a substantive facilitation of mobility. The systems have securitized the collective political autonomy of the whole system and the member entities as well as the rights of the overwhelming majority of “stayers” by decentralized and federal structures. As a result, the overarching political system is not (perceived as) the source of imbalance and threat to local identity, but as guarantor of stability of the parts and the whole. This overall stability is valued higher than mobility, even though individual mobility rights remain in place. This proposal of a paradigm shift is tentatively corroborated by WP7, which proposes a well-balanced common core of fundamental rights as alternative to a conception of European citizenship that gives priority to the formal and substantive conditions of freedom of movement.

2. Associative forms of citizenship

EU-citizenship is automatically obtained via citizenship of a member-state of the EU. WP7 proposes to reflect upon a more autonomous, voluntarily endorsed citizenship for residents of EU member states. The treaties as contracts of member states would be complemented by a social contract of associated citizens who voluntarily endorse an additional bundle of rights and duties and thereby take a direct responsibility for transnational structures of opportunities and solidarities in the EU.

We invite other WPs to cross-examine these findings and confront them with their own insights.


10.00 – 12.45

Alternative forms of Citizenship

10.00-10.20: Paradigm shift from mobility to stability, Francis Cheneval (Professor, University of Zurich) and Maarten Prak (Professor, Utrecht University)

10.20-11.10: Public discussion. Chair: Maarten Prak

11.10- 11.30 Coffee Break

11.30-11.50: Associative forms of citizenship, Marie-Pierre Granger (Associate Professor, Central European University, Budapest)

11.50-12.45: Public discussion. Chair: Hanneke van Eijken (Assistant Professor, Utrecht University) and Marie-Pierre Granger