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Bachelor of Medicine

Learning outcomes

The objectives of the bachelor’s and master’s programme of medicine are based on the CanMEDS roles (medical expert, communicator, collaborator, manager, health advocate, scholar and professional) and are described by role below using competences. The difference in competence at bachelor and master level is based on the levels in Miller’s pyramid:
Level 1: Knows
Level 2: Knows how
Level 3: Shows how
Level 4: Does

The contents of the role of “Medical expert” at the level of basic medical doctor is determined by 120 clinical pictures of the Medical Council of Canada (“objectives for the qualifying examination”).

Medical expert

1. The bachelor has insight in required medical knowledge in relation to a clinical problem. He/she applies the taught knowledge (III) and can reason towards a decision (II).

2. The bachelor effectively applies taught skills in relation to a clinical problem (II)

3. The bachelor can execute a consult plan. He/she does a relevant and accurate intake and anamnesis (III). He/she effectively does a physical or another examination (III) and draws up a differential diagnosis (II). He/she effectively collects, analyses and interprets data (from case history, physical examination, technical test) (II). He/she makes a correct diagnosis (II) and proposes effective actions/treatment (I).

4. The bachelor draws up an adequate, multidisciplinary care plan with specific attention to self-care and after-care of the patient (I)

5. The bachelor describes symptoms of essential (and fixed (e.g. top 10’s)) syndromes and alarm signals (and considers them in a differential diagnosis) (I)

6. The bachelor integrates the roles of communicator, collaborator, manager, health advocate, scholar and professional (II)

Communicator

7. The bachelor gives a clear and understandable account of a relevant, complete, systematic and accurate intake and anamnesis (II)

8. The bachelor reports the patient case in writing mentioning the patient report or referral (II)

9. The bachelor can fill out a patient file and keep it up to date and presents all relevant information for every other health care provider clearly and orderly (I)

10. The bachelor reports the patient case orally to other doctors and health care providers (II)

11. The bachelor communicates his scientific research clearly, completely and orderly (III)

12. The bachelor communicates with the patient during the consultation according to the valid standards of “good practice” (III)

13. The bachelor engages in an empathic, confidential and ethically sound doctor-patient and doctor-family relation and can maintain this (II)

14. The bachelor reflects on his own communication and his progress in it (IV)

Collaborator

15. The bachelor knows and involves the profile and competences of other care providers (III)

16. The bachelor actively participates in teamwork (III)

17. The bachelor makes an effective contribution to a team in the area of patient care, education and research (I)

18. The bachelor integrates the following in teamwork: taking and giving responsibility (I), delegating and organising (I), giving and getting colleague advice (I), boosting the “chain of care” (increasing the effectiveness of working interdisciplinary) (I), dealing with inter-professional conflict (I)

19. The bachelor reflects on working in a team and respecting the opinion of other team members (II)

Manager

20. The bachelor reflects on self-care and the balance between work and personal development (work/private life time management) (II)

21. The bachelor ranks information in order of importance and urgency, sets sound priorities and motivates these (professional time management) (II)

22. The bachelor deals correctly and timely with administrative and organisational tasks (IV)

23. The bachelor registers, classifies and exchanges patient data in an effective (and confidential) way (I)

24. The bachelor makes use of information technology to optimize patient care (and functioning of the practice) (patient-related databases) (I) and to stimulate “life long learning” (medical databases) (III)

25. The bachelor can work within the health system and other care systems (welfare, justice) in Belgium (I)

26. The bachelor has insights in the costs that medical actions entail for society, the patient himself and the doctor (I)

Health advocate

27. The bachelor reflects on the psychological, social, economic, biological, societal, ethical cultural and religious aspects that influence the patient’s health (III)

28. The bachelor sensitizes the individual patient and the general population in relation to health aspects (primary prevention) (III)

29. The bachelor does prevention and health promotion with individual patients and the general population (secondary prevention) (III)

30. The bachelor has attention for patient safety (II)

31. The bachelor effectively guides patients through the labyrinth of health care and gives arguments when choices need to be made (I)

32. The bachelor gives preferred attention to the patient’s interests (III)

33. The bachelor involves and facilitates the accessibility of health care in his work, in particular for vulnerable groups (II)

34. The bachelor reflects on critical incidents in the practice (II)

Scholar

35. The bachelor asks relevant, practice-oriented and scientific questions in relation to patient care (III)

36. The bachelor effectively, purposefully and quickly searches medical sources (III)

37. The bachelor questions the quality of the scientific sources used (IV)

38. The bachelor adequately applies scientific information in practice (decisions) (II)

39. In relation to the development and follow up of a personal training plan the bachelor can reflect critically and scientifically on his own actions in the practice (II). He/she describes and analyses his personal learning needs (III) and applies an adequate learning method (III). He/she evaluates his learning results independently or with (professional) peers and adjusts (II)

40. The bachelor contributes to the creation, circulation and application of new medical knowledge and practice (II)

41. The bachelor stimulates follow up training for patients, family, students, interns, other health care providers, general population (II)

42. The bachelor adjusts his functioning to societal evolutions in health care (II)

43. The bachelor is willing to do lifelong learning (III)

Professional

44. The bachelor gives highest quality care to his patient in an integral, honourable and ethically sound way (II)

45. The bachelor knows the meaning of and applies professional codes (II), ethical codes and dilemmas (uses an ethical frame of reference) (I), legal codes (I)

46. The bachelor reflects on his own behavior (III), his own professional attitude: shows the will to provide optimal, ethical and patient-centered medical care (III), attitude and behavior of others and evaluates it for himself (III), legal implications of patient care (patients’ rights, professional secrecy, DNR-codes, terminal care) (II), professional, ethical, legal codes (II)

47. The bachelor has the right professional attitude and behavior and shows: honesty, integrity, commitment, respect, understanding, empathy, altruism and corrects himself if necessary (IV)

48. The bachelor indicates his own limits, limitations or gaps of knowledge and knows how to deal with these (III)