Step 8: public defence

It's time: the day of your public PhD defence has finally arrived!

Everything has been prepared, the catering is ready and the audience members arrive...

The chairperson opens the defence.
Next, you are expected to hold a presentation on your doctoral research. This is followed by a question-and-answer round. The jury will ask you questions.

Afterwards, the jury will go to another room to deliberate. When they have reached a decision, they come back in and make their decision known. They will let you know whether you passed the doctoral exam (grades are not awarded for PhDs).

If the result is positive, your supervisor wild hold a laudatio and you are expected to say a word of thanks.
Now the official part is over, and the reception can begin!

Congratulations, you have now obtained the doctoral title of Doctor!