The IOB Working Paper Series (ISSN 2294-8643) seeks to stimulate the timely exchange of ideas about development issues, by offering a forum to get findings out quickly, even in a less than fully polished form. The IOB working papers are vetted by the chair of the IOB Research Commission. Publication as an IOB Working Paper does not constitute prior publication, and does not preclude publication elsewhere. The findings and views expressed in the IOB working papers are those of the authors. They do not necessarily represent the views of the IOB as an institute.