Research team

Expertise

Trace and micro analysis, especially for environmental samples

Research project VMM – heavy metals. 01/10/2014 - 31/10/2015

Abstract

Examination of instrumental parameters and current validation for the studied heavy metals in order to determine whether the sensitivity of the present apparatus can still be improved. Investigation into the cause of the large deviation between the ICP-MS and XRF results, in particular, for the element antimony (Sb). Investigation of different types of filters for sampling heavy metals. Optimization of XRF devices for elemental analysis, especially in terms of the projects on chemical characterization. This concerns the following elements: Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Ti, V and Zn.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

    Optimization of measurement conditions of combined micro analytical techniques, in particular EPMA and MRS, for the research regarding the preventive conservation methods for cultural heritage. 01/10/2010 - 30/09/2012

    Abstract

    In frame of the following research project, the existing micro and trace analytical techniques such as electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA), micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS) and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) will be optimized in order to obtain the most relevant information necessary for the determination of the weathering of the art objects, preservation techniques and the optimization of the so-called "preventive conservation" of the cultural heritage."

    Researcher(s)

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      Laser ablation solid sampling station for high-resolution inductively coupled mass spectrometer (LA-HR-ICP-MS). 22/07/2010 - 31/12/2014

      Abstract

      This project represents a formal research agreement between UA and on the other hand the Flemish Public Service. UA provides the Flemish Public Service research results mentioned in the title of the project under the conditions as stipulated in this contract.

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        Atmospheric deposition fluxes of ship emissions to the Belgian North Sea (SHIPFLUX). 01/09/2009 - 31/08/2011

        Abstract

        In view of the above fads, the main objectives of the proposed study will include the quantification of the effects of ship emissions to the deposition in terms of gaseous air pollutants and aerosols (nitrogen compounds, such as NOx, nitrate, nitrite, nitric acid, NH3, and ammonium salts, some heavy metals and some persistent organic pollutants or POPS), as derived from experimental measurements on board of research vessels passing through the main shipping lanes of the Southern Bight of the North Sea and a fixed radar platform, as well as at a coastal site at De Haan (Belgium), in combination with advanced atmospheric models.

        Researcher(s)

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          Educational Linkage Approach in Cultural Heritage. (ELAICH) 01/02/2009 - 31/01/2012

          Abstract

          The general objective of ELAICH is to strenghten and consolidate mutual understanding and dialogue between cultures by promotion of Mediterranean cultural heritage and public awareness-raising. The specific objective of ELAICH is to contribute to awareness-raising in the Mediterranean partner countries in particular to the importance of cultural heritage and its diversity and to encourage the accessibility to and the knowledge of cultural heritage.

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            High Resolution Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (HR-ICP-MS). 19/12/2008 - 18/12/2013

            Abstract

            This project represents a research contract awarded by the University of Antwerp. The supervisor provides the Antwerp University research mentioned in the title of the project under the conditions stipulated by the university.

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            Providing scientific assistance in the sediment Fingerprinting of the Waterbouwkundig Laboratorium. 15/12/2008 - 01/12/2011

            Abstract

            This project represents a formal research agreement between UA and on the other hand the Flemish Public Service. UA provides the Flemish Public Service research results mentioned in the title of the project under the conditions as stipulated in this contract.

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              Health effects of particulate matter in relation to physical-chemical characteristics and meteorology. (PARHEALTH - second phase) 15/12/2008 - 31/01/2011

              Abstract

              This project represents a formal research agreement between UA and on the other hand the Federal Public Service. UA provides the Federal Public Service research results mentioned in the title of the project under the conditions as stipulated in this contract.

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                Technologies and tools to prioritize assessment and diagnosis of air pollution impact on immovable and movable cultural heritage. (TEACH) 01/12/2008 - 30/11/2011

                Abstract

                Within the framework of this doctoral research, the optimization of the existing micro- and trace analytical techniques such as electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS) and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) will be carried out in order to obtain the most relevant information required for the determination of the weathering of art objects and for the improvement of conservation techniques and so-called "preventive protection" of the cultural heritage.

                Researcher(s)

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                  Assessment of atmospheric environmental risks related to artworks in the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage complex of Alhambra (Granada, Spain) with the emphasis on the analysis of a unique collection of authentic pigment samples. 01/10/2008 - 30/06/2013

                  Abstract

                  The present research aims to characterize the materials and gaseous and particulate atmospheric pollutants at the Alhambra monumental complex in order to assess their contribution to the weathering processes on its artworks. A combination of micro-analytical techniques will be applied for in-depth characterisation of materials and pollutants. A plan for preventive conservation of the monument will be proposed based on the achieved results.

                  Researcher(s)

                  Research team(s)

                    Optimization of measurement conditions of combined micro analytical techniques, in particular EPMA and MRS, for the research regarding the preventive conservation methods for cultural heritage. 01/10/2008 - 30/09/2010

                    Abstract

                    In frame of the following research project, the existing micro and trace analytical techniques such as electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA), micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS) and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) will be optimized in order to obtain the most relevant information necessary for the determination of the weathering of the art objects, preservation techniques and the optimization of the so-called "preventive conservation" of the cultural heritage."

                    Researcher(s)

                    Research team(s)

                      Utilising combined Electron Probe Micro Analysis / micro Raman Spectrometry (MRS) to investigate the interrelationship between air quality and the degradation of building materials. 01/10/2008 - 30/09/2009

                      Abstract

                      The project will use combined electron probe micro analysis and micro-Raman spectrometry (EPMA-MRS) determinations to elucidate the contribution of various atmospheric components on the degree and mechanism of degradation of selected building materials (more specifically those commonly used in Sub-Saharan Africa) in order to recommend improvements in their use and application. Parallel Electron probe micro analysis and micro Raman spectrometry techniques will be used to perform analyses of degradation products of both accelerated and real-time corroded samples (mortar, galvanized iron and aluminium). The project will enhance collaboration between Belgian and African researchers and a transfer of expertise from the postdoctoral candidate to the Belgian research group at UA.

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                        Preventive conservation/presentation in the museum Plantin-Moretus/Prentenkabinet, Antwerp. 01/09/2008 - 30/06/2012

                        Abstract

                        This project represents a formal research agreement between UA and on the other hand Musea en Erfgoed Antwerpen vzw. UA provides Musea en Erfgoed Antwerpen vzw research results mentioned in the title of the project under the conditions as stipulated in this contract.

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                          Environment and plant ecology at various scales. 01/01/2008 - 31/12/2014

                          Abstract

                          The main theme of the Center of Excellence ECO is the study of the effects of changes in the abiotic (i.e. non-living) environment on ecological systems, on the condition and health of plants and animals ¿ including humans ¿ and on the cultural heritage. With regard to the ecological systems hierarchical levels ranging from the cell and organism, over ecosystems to the landscape and region, are considered. Essentially we examine both causes (abiotic changes, disturbance of the living environment, various stress situations) and their consequences (ecophysiological and chemical respons processes at different levels of organisation). The research has a basic fundamental nature, but has also a methodological aspect. In a number of cases the research will also result in or lead to relevant practical applications.

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                          Project website

                          Modelling the geochemical COé fluxes from carbonaceous soils. 01/01/2008 - 31/12/2011

                          Abstract

                          Specific objectives: 1. Couple a biological and a geochemical model. 2. Collect the missing model parameters and apply the newly produced biogeochemical model at two study sites in contrasting climates. 3. Validate the model outputs with the measured CO2 fluxes and their 13C/12C ratio's. 4. Interpret the primary biological and geological flxes in relation to their dominant drivers. 5. One of the two study sites is located on top of tha Altamira cave, world famous for its Palaeolithic cave paintings. Using the biogeochemical model, we will determine the risk for damage of the paintings under conditions of climate change of alternative cave management.

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                          Chemical characterisation of individual fine particulate matter with respect to their health impact. (NOVAKOVIC., Servië) 15/11/2007 - 15/11/2008

                          Abstract

                          The main goal of this research project was to investigate the composition of size segregated airborne particles with respect to the health risk attributable to particulate matter (PM) air pollution in the urban, suburban and rural region. This study is directly related to the current projects carried out by the host unit: "Health effects of particulate matter in relation to physical-chemical characteristics and meteorology (PARHEALTH)" in cooperation with partners from KULeuven, UGent, ULBrussels en KMI. The selection of sampling sites was done in collaboration with the mentioned project partners. The target group, most sensitive to air pollution, were elderly people and children. The sampling procedure, beside of collecting bulk samples, involved also sampling of size-segregated particulate matter with Berner impactor connected to a Becker pump with a maximum flow ca 30 l/min. Samples were collected on Si and Ag substrates. During the two weeks campaign, there were 12 sets of size segregated samples collected, 6 ones every week. SEM/EDX analysis was followed by the fitting of X-ray spectra with WinAxil software, followed by the calculation of elemental weight concentration of each analysed particle. The recalculation of X-ray spectra to the relevant weight concentrations was done by a home-made software Elementary, which is designed for a standardless analysis based on the Monte Carlo simulations.

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                            Combined "Thin window" EPMA and Micro Raman approaches for chemical and structural characterization of environmental particles: optimization of the measurements strategy and data interpretation; correlation with XANES and XRD. 01/10/2007 - 27/11/2010

                            Abstract

                            The ultimate goal of the post-doc research will be the further optimisation of the measurements strategy with the "thin window" Electron Probe X-rays Microanalysis (EPMA) and micro-Raman Spectrometry (MRS), tested in the passed previous years. The instruments will be used both independently and in the interfaced mode. This innovative application will be studied oriented with respect to both chemical composition and physical and structural characterisation of natural and anthropogenic environmental particles. The attention will also be paid to interpretation of the data from both techniques.

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                              Estimation of hazardous metals concentrations in ambient urban air taken up by a human respiratory system. (CEVIK UGUR, Turkijke) 15/09/2007 - 15/09/2008

                              Abstract

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                                Indoor air quality for health-related components in offices, schools and residences in the province of Antwerp. 01/01/2007 - 31/12/2008

                                Abstract

                                Hardly any research has been done on indoor air quality in offices, schools and residences in Belgium, while industrial occupational exposure has been documented much better for some pollutants. This study will include systematically the determination of the levels and chemical composition of the fine and ultra-fine particulate fractions and of health-related pollution gases, in numerous and diverse indoor environments in the Province of Antwerp.

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                                  Development and optimization of an efficient, user-friendly personal protection of schoolgoing children against air pollution in urban environments. 01/01/2007 - 31/12/2008

                                  Abstract

                                  In spite of various governmental efforts to reduce ambient air pollution in urban environments, citizens are being exposed to polluted air. Due to the growing evidence of a causal relationship between ambient air pollution and asthma related symptoms, a solution is urgently required. This project allows the development of an efficient, personal protection suitable for children, which schoolgoing children can wear during bike rides in the city.

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                                    Analysis of selected biologically relevant metals captured in the atmosphere above the North Sea. (L. DARCHUK, Oekraïne) 01/01/2007 - 31/12/2007

                                    Abstract

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                                      Health effects of particulate matter in relation to physical-chemical characteristics and meteorology. (PARHEALTH) 15/12/2006 - 31/01/2009

                                      Abstract

                                      The objectives of the proposal are elaborated in a context of sustainable development. This project will generate information that is essential to policy making in the context of a sustainable development. A major research outcome would be the identification of key substances responsible for the observed effects. This would have major consequences since it would lead to allow the elaboration of cost-effective strategies for regulation purposes in contrast to the current global approach which takes only the mass PM into account.

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                                        Ion analyses 2006-2007. 01/09/2006 - 31/12/2007

                                        Abstract

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                                          Element analyses 2006-2007. 01/09/2006 - 31/12/2007

                                          Abstract

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                                            Identification and prognosis of atmospheric pollution in selected health resorts of Lower Silesia after the modernisation of the two largest industrial plants in this region. 01/01/2006 - 31/12/2007

                                            Abstract

                                            The aim of this project is to investigate physical and chemical properties of atmospheric aerosols in the selected health resorts of Lower Silesia, located in the Polish part of the "Black Triangle". The field of investigation involves morphology and elemental analysis of individual dust particles by means of scanning electron microscope equipped with X-ray detector (SEM/EDS), automated electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA), quantitative bulk analysis of suspended particulate matter by means of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) and application of micro-Raman spectroscopy to determine its molecular composition. Additionally, a method of stable isotope analysis will be developed to be suitable for dust particles passively and dynamically sampled. Monitoring of gaseous pollutants will be enhanced by the determination of light organic compounds with passive sampling applied. The obtained results will be applied to create theoretical basis and estimation of the observed correlations and statistical modeling.

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                                              Center of excellence ECO. 01/01/2006 - 31/12/2007

                                              Abstract

                                              The main theme of the Center of Excellence ECO is the study of the effects of changes in the abiotic (i.e. non-living) environment on ecological systems, on the condition and health of plants and animals ¿ including humans ¿ and on the cultural heritage. With regard to the ecological systems hierarchical levels ranging from the cell and organism, over ecosystems to the landscape and region, are considered. Essentially we examine both causes (abiotic changes, disturbance of the living environment, various stress situations) and their consequences (ecophysiological and chemical respons processes at different levels of organisation). The research has a basic fundamental nature, but has also a methodological aspect. In a number of cases the research will also result in or lead to relevant practical applications.

                                              Researcher(s)

                                              Research team(s)

                                              Project website

                                              X-ray fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy studies of marine calcite and atmospheric aerosol particles. (Y. MAKAROVSKA, Oekraïne) 15/06/2005 - 14/06/2006

                                              Abstract

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                                                Structural and chemical characterization of materials at the micro- and nanometer scale. 01/01/2005 - 31/12/2014

                                                Abstract

                                                The study of surfaces, interfaces, microscopic and even nanoscopic structures becomes more and more important in the characterization of very diverse materials in metallurgy, microelectronics, optoelectronics, photographic sciences etc. This characterization is mostly carried out using so-called (micro)beam techniques. By interaction of a "primary" beam (electrons, photons, ions), "secondary" signals are generated at the material's surface (electrons, photons, ions, neutrals), which contain information on the composition and/or structure of the material's surface. The various techniques differ in the kind of information, i.e. information depth, depth resolution, possibility to measure depth profiles, lateral resolution, compatibility with certain types of materials (electrical insulator vs. conductor, refractory vs. labile material), destructive or non-destructive character and type of information (elemental, istopic, molecular) It is clear that one method cannot answer all questions. Moreover, the required equipment is very expensive It is not possible for one research group to have in-house all infrastructure, accessories, know-how, know-why, and experienced personnel. Cooperation is therefore a must. The scientific research community aims at facilitating mutual consultations, exchanges and access to complementary equipment for solving a variety of problems, introduced by one or more of its members.

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                                                Simultaneous chemical and structural analysis of micro-particles using micro-Raman spectrometry interfaced with electron probe microanalysis. 01/01/2005 - 31/12/2010

                                                Abstract

                                                To apply micro-Raman/SERS in combination and interfaced with EPMA to investigate simultaneously the elemental composition together with chemical, physical and structural information of particles, of environmental and technological origins. Such a combined micro-Raman/EPMA instrument is not available anywhere on the European continent yet. Background: The use of EPMA (electron probe micro analysis) with EDX (energy-dispersive X-ray detection) in the analysis of individual particles has been firmly established, since a number of years, in previous work by our group in the Micro- and Trace Analysis Centre at the Department of Chemistry at the University of Antwerp. In an ending FWO project, conventional EDX-EPMA has been extended to include the detection of low-Z elements in individual particles, because these elements (C, S, O and N) are abundantly present in e.g. atmospheric aerosols and environmental particles. Initially, "ultra-thin window" or windowless X-ray detectors were used to avoid absorption of characteristic X-rays by the Be window of the conventional detectors. Also, a new method is now applied, called "grazing-exit EPMA" (GE-EPMA), in which the characteristic X-rays are measured from the top surface of the sample or particles present on the surface only. Quantitative information is necessary for the speciation at the individual particle level of the chemical state and form in which each element occurs in the particle, as that largely determines its potential hazardous risk, both for the environment and humans. Very promising results have been obtained with quantification measurements and Monte Carlo calculations, while some research is still necessary to obtain a fully satisfactory agreement between the simulated and experimental data. All together, it seems that we have rather comprehensively and successfully exploited the potential of EPMA (and of several other micro-analysis techniques, with sometimes more limited success) for individual particle analysis, resulting in well over hundred publications in international journals since 1990 (see e.g. the intermediate report on the ending FWO project, and our homepage: http:llchem-www.uia.ac.be/u/vgrieken). On other external funds, we have recently acquired a micro-Raman spectrometer (Renishaw InVIA). We think that Raman spectrometry and its Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) version have rather unexplored potentials in the single particle analysis field, particularly if they can be embedded with simultaneous EPMA, with which we have so much experience and which we have exhaustively used already.

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                                                  Research on toxic fumes which seafarers on board tankers are exposed to during normal (working) operations. 01/01/2005 - 31/12/2006

                                                  Abstract

                                                  The project is aimed at investigating to what extent seafarers are exposed to toxic fumes on chemical and gas tankers. For that purpose accurate measuring will be carried out in the living spaces and during the normal working operations, as well at sea as in port. The measured values will be evaluated in comparison with the TLV-values. The results should allow us to optimise the correct application of means of protection.

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                                                    Radioecological risk assessment of abandoned uranium mine based on microchemical analysis after recultivation. 01/01/2005 - 31/12/2006

                                                    Abstract

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                                                      Role of the calcium carbonate skeletons of marine organisms in the oceanic calcite balance. (Elzbieta STEFANIAK, Polen) 01/01/2005 - 31/12/2005

                                                      Abstract

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                                                        Application of combinated "Thin window" EPMA and Micro Raman approaches for the chemical and structural characterization of environmental particles. 01/10/2004 - 30/09/2007

                                                        Abstract

                                                        The study of atmospheric aerosols has recently become very important for two major reasons: the small particle size fraction has a very important influence on human health and it affects the global climate. Micro-analytical characterization of individual particles generally permits more information to be obtained than is feasible with bulk analysis. The development of thin-window energy-dispersive detectors was of major importance for electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), in order to detect light elements (6<Z). This technique has proven to be a powerful tool for the study of individual particles, because the combination of electron microscopic imaging with energy dispersive X-ray detection allows characterizing large numbers of individual particles in a fast, automated way. The improved technology largely extended our knowledge on atmospheric reactions, due to novel information obtained on the chemical composition and reactions of aerosol particles. The combination of computer-controlled single-particle analysis using thin-window EPMA and a reverse Monte Carlo quantification procedure proved to be very beneficial for providing elemental concentrations within 15 % relative accuracy, also for low-Z elements. Beam-sensitive particles such as ammonium sulphate and nitrate can be analysed by using a liquid-nitrogen cooled sample stage. Additionally, the automation gives the possibility to analyse huge numbers of aerosols at a single particle level, giving better statistical results. Further developments of this methodology should allow studying surface layers on individual microscopic particles. Recently, some surface layers on so-called Asian dust particles were studied, i.e. soil dust, which is transported from the Gobi desert during certain periods of the year and influences the regional weather and air pollution considerably. In order to obtain more detailed information about the speciation of the individual environmental particles, it is proposed that different combinations of microanalysis techniques should be studied as well. The combination of the micro-Raman technique and TW-EPMA for environmental research can give detailed information about the characterisation of individual particles, which permits better characterization and provide more complete information about the Global Change problems, pollution sources and their processes. Micro-Raman spectroscopy has rather unexplored potentials in the single particle analysis field, particularly if it can be coupled with EPMA.

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                                                          Ettringite as a potential material for environmental solid waste processing : study of the formation kinetics and chemical characterisation. (FWO Vis.Fel., Vermaak-Potgieter Sanja) 15/08/2004 - 14/08/2005

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                                                            Proper heating of historic wooden churches: characterization of airflows, air particulate deposition and strains in the wood. 01/01/2004 - 31/12/2005

                                                            Abstract

                                                            Central Europe has a long and rich religious wooden heritage (Catholic, Orthodox, Protestant, Jewish). The historic structures preserved are a unique legacy of art and architecture. Around 2000 wooden religious buildings are preserved in Poland itself. They are of considerable spiritual and social significance, providing insights into past cultures and activities, events and people. Almost all contain valuable, often mediaeval, paintings covering the wooden walls of the interiors, as well as liturgical and decorative objects. The wooden architectural heritage is decaying for many reasons, one of the most important is the adverse effect of the artificial climate produced by heating their interiors in winter to satisfy modern demands for comfort. The wooden churches were originally unheated, and some still are. But the demand for heating churches by local communities has increased the number of churches which are heated for up to 5 months of the year. Differing heating systems and regimes are used, but they are mainly planned for the comfort of the congregation without understanding of ancient artistic techniques and requirements for conservation.The heating of churches effectively contributes to decay of the paintings on wood and the decorative objects, since it leads to much lower levels of the relative humidity than the ideal. On the whole, the adverse effects of heating on the structure and the contents of the churches are known. However, there have not been so far any systematic and scientific studies of the environmental conditions prevailing in the wooden historic churches during heating. In this way there is not sufficient knowledge to take the correct action to improve the environmental conditions, produce the guidelines and recommendations for conservation specialists and authorities, and provide information for the congregations using the historic churches.The aim of the proposed project is to obtain adequate knowledge about the response of the interior of the wooden churches to the adverse impacts of not-optimal micro-climate, and of indoor and outdoor particulate and gaseous pollutants, generated by the heating system itself, coming from outside and originating indoors from sources like candle burning. The ultimate objective is to improve the environmental conditions for the structure, the paintings and the works of art. The consortium of 3 research organisations (2 Polish and 1 Flemish) has complementary expertise and resources. The UA group is specialised in the applications of analyses at very low concentration levels, e.g. for characterising the atmospheric depositions that may soil objects of art, and air movements. The instrumental analysis of suspended particulate matter within and around the churches will be the responsibility of one of the Polish partners, UMM, and partially of UA. Particulate matter will be collected from the air, using different approaches including size-differentiation. It will be chemically analysed by two different X-ray fluorescence techniques (in UMM and UA) and by single particle analysis (in UA) and the chemical speciation of the particulate matter will be examined (by UMM); all this is to assess the possible deteriorating effects of the air particulates, identify the sources and propose remedies. The air movements without the churches will be monitored with trace gas techniques by UA, to get insight in the movement of the pollution particles and gases within the churches and from the outside. The other Polish partner, PAS, has specialised for a long time in monitoring microclimatic parameters in historic buildings, as well as measurements of structural response of painted wood to changes in its microenvironment. Using laser systems, this group will measure wood deformations by not-ideal humidity and temperature in the churches, and acoustic emission techniques as well. Quantitative estimates of the damage to wood due to the heating systems and indoor pollutants will the

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                                                              NO2 measurements using passive samplers, 2004. 01/01/2004 - 31/03/2005

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                                                                Development and application of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and electron probe X-ray microanalysis for marine calcite particles and their atmospheric precursors. (scholarship Konstantin BELIKOV, Oekraïne) 01/01/2004 - 31/12/2004

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                                                                  Atmospheric Nitrogen Input into the North Sea : Inorganic and Organic Nutrient fluxes. 15/12/2003 - 30/04/2006

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                                                                    Capturing of Aerosol Particles from Welding. 01/09/2003 - 31/08/2005

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                                                                      Ettringite as a potential material for environmental solid waste processing : study of the formation kinetics and chemical characterisation. 15/08/2003 - 14/08/2004

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                                                                        FWO Visiting Postdoctoral Fellowship . (Johannes Potgieter) 01/08/2003 - 31/07/2004

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                                                                          Regional measurements using passive samplers in Mortsel 2003-2005. 01/06/2003 - 31/10/2005

                                                                          Abstract

                                                                          The Flemish Environment Agency (VMM) has commissioned a study on the effects of a major infrastructural change of an important traffic artery in Mortsel on the regional air quality. Traffic on the Antwerpsestraat will be cut to one lane each way and a tramline will be extended in-between the lanes. It is expected that these infrastructural works will have a significant impact on the traffic density, which should result in a measurable and important effect on the air quality. NO2 and BTEX (i.e. benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene) will be sampled with passive samplers before and after the road works. Two sampling campaigns will be conducted, which will both last for one month: -Before commencement of the works, i.e. June 2003. -After completion of the works, i.e. June 2005. In addition several indoor measurements will also be performed.

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                                                                            Advanced study course on innovative technologies & materials for the conservation of cultural heritage.(ITECOM) 01/04/2003 - 31/07/2004

                                                                            Abstract

                                                                            Conservation of cultural heritage is a major concern for decision-makers and researchers, but also for the broader European Community. Numerous research projects, both national and international (European) have been conducted, during the last ten years, which resulted in new insights on materials and methodologies. It is therefore necessary to spread this valuable knowledge, to inform and lecture the researchers involved in a profound and reliable way about the recent developments in the field. The scope of the program is to promote the education on the science and engineering of conservation interventions on historic monuments and complexes that undergo severe environmental loads. The basic target is thus to educate 40 postgraduate students of different backgrounds on the recent advances on the conservation and restoration of monuments.

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                                                                              Model for multi-pollutant impact and assessment of threshold levels for cultural heritage (MULTI-ASSESS). 01/02/2003 - 30/04/2005

                                                                              Abstract

                                                                              The costs for deterioration and soiling of different materials due to air pollution are huge and the damage to culture targets endangers seriously the rich European cultural heritage. Interests have been focused for a long time on the effects of S pollutants and especially SO2, which was identified as the most important factor for deterioration of several materials. Existing dose-response functions reflect in principle a pollution situation dominated by SO2-emissions. The decreasing SO2-levels in most parts of Europe and the increasing car traffic causing elevated levels of N compounds, O3 and particulates has created a new multi-pollutant situation. The development of dose-response relations, which quantify the multi-pollutant effects in combination with climatic parameters on the deterioration and soiling of different materials, constitutes a necessary condition for prediction of damage and for establishment of threshold levels. The results should be fed into air quality policy and would be an efficient tool for authorities, organisations and individuals responsible for the care of cultural heritage in the efforts to preserve objects of cultural heritage and to reduce the cost for maintenance.

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                                                                                Determination of low-Z elements and characterisation of surface layers on marine CaCO3 particles using new electron microprobe techniques. (M. SEMENOV, Rusland) 01/01/2003 - 31/12/2003

                                                                                Abstract

                                                                                Since biogenic and abiotic marine particles with calcite or aragonite as their main matrix, which are important in the context of Global Climate Change, can be chemically and morphologically heterogeneous, and the average composition and the average aerodynamic diameter do not describe well the population of the particles, the application of micro-analytical methods should be useful. Electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) is capable of simultaneously detecting the chemical composition and morphology of a microscopic volume, such as a single environmental particle. In automated EMPA, the electron beam automatically scans over a loaded filter while the backscattered electron signal is monitored. At the pixels where this signal exceeds a certain threshold, a particle can be assumed to be present. In an automated way, this particle will be located, sized and analysed in a few seconds. In this way, data for thousands of particles are accumulated in a short time. Application of subsequent statistical processing techniques, like cluster analysis, will classify the particles in specific particle types. In this way the relative abundance ofcalcite and other particles can be measured representatively. For each particle type, the average composition, shape and size are registered. The methodology for this has been developed earlier for high-Z elements. In recent studies at the University of Antwerp, it was found that excitation interactions between electrons and the matrix atoms and the geometric and matrix effects on electron-induced X-ray signals for light elements in individual microparticles could be described by Monte Carlo simulation. By the application of a quantification method, which employs this Monte Carlo simulation combined with successive approximations, at least semi-quantitative specification of the chemical compositions can be done. This EPMA technique especially allows determining the concentration of low-Z elements such as carbon, nitrogen and oxygen, as well as the heavier elements which are observed using conventional energy-dispersive EPMA, including e.g. Sr. Conventional energy-dispersive X-ray detectors are not suitable for low-Z element analysis mainly because their Be window, used for protecting the semiconductor detector surface from contamination, absorbs low-energy X-rays and thus hinders the detection of the low-Zelement X- rays. The determination of low-Z elements in individual environmental particles allows to improve the applicability of the single particle analysis; many important marine particle types, including calcite and carbonaceous particles, contain low-Z elements, which have not been characterised using the conventional EPMA. It is obvious that e.g. the carbon content might give clues about the biogenic origin of a single micrometer-size calcite particle. However, it is also of prime importance to have an analytical tool to distinguish chemical species in the surface region, from those of core region, in individual particles of micrometer size. In the proposed grant period, we will also study and apply a new analytical methodology, which can characterize the surface layers (including organic layers) on individual CaCO3 particles, using "variable-energy" EMPA. When one uses X-ray excitation in individual particles with electron beams of variable energies (e.g. from soft beams of 5 keV to hard beams of 25 keV), the probing depth is varied, and one obtains information about the variability of the composition with depth, i.e. also about surface layers. For quantification, this approach requires again complicated simulations of the electron interactions using Monte Carlo calculations for every particle, but this methodology has recently been developed. Hitherto, surface layers on marine CaCO3 particles have not been studied directly, because of the technical problems involved. Yet this information will be very valuable. One may expect that the residual organic layer on plankton skelet

                                                                                Researcher(s)

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                                                                                  Exposure of communities living in the centre of the Euro region to polluting atmospheric particles: the case of fine particulate matter (EXPER/PF). 01/07/2002 - 31/12/2004

                                                                                  Abstract

                                                                                  The aim of this project is the development of a strategy or tool that allows a better evaluation of transboundary air quality in the Euro region (defined here as Nord ' Pas de Calais for France and Flanders for Belgium). Most emphasis will be on atmospheric particulate matter, especially the smallest size fractions (PM2.5). The following tasks are included in this project: Harmonise and optimise/expand interregional monitoring networks for fine particles, i.e. PM2.5 and PM10. - Compiling a joint database (e.g. methodological data, physical-chemical parameters, heavy metals, meteorological data, optical in-situ image and measurements). -Starting up a new PM2.5 sampling station and comparison of measurement protocols. -Use of teledetection as an extension to measurement networks. -Setting up a GIS. -Conducting a measurement campaign in the Rijsel area to study transboundary transport of fine particles. -Study the behaviour of physical-chemical characteristics of aerosols during transport and the influence of aerosols on tropospheric chemical reactions. -Transboundary distribution of information on air quality for the general public (e.g. world wide web, scientific and popularized publications, reports, information sessions, colloquies).

                                                                                  Researcher(s)

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                                                                                    Friendly heating : confortable to people and compatible with conservation of art works preserved in churches. 01/04/2002 - 31/03/2005

                                                                                    Abstract

                                                                                    This project aims at changing the heating strategy. Instead of heating the entire room, the walls and ceiling, the heat will be concentrated just on the area where people stay without causing a negative impact on artworks. In addition, the proposed solution saves energy and as a consequence, it protects the environment. When churches are heated with the traditional systems, the sudden sporadic heating generates a drop in relative humidity and this in turn forces evaporation from paintings on canvas and other artworks with a low thermal capacity. At the same time, when the church is full of people, the moisture released by them raises the dew point above the temperature of the thick walls and the ceiling. The excess of moisture condenses on the cold surface of frescoes and decorations, with dramatic consequences. The only solution is to keep the heat concentrated in the area where people seat, and to avoid that the excess moisture spreads in the room and reaches artworks.

                                                                                    Researcher(s)

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                                                                                      Determination of conditions to prevent weathering due to condensation, particle deposition and micro-organism growth on ancient stained glass windows with protective glazing. (VIDRIO) 01/02/2002 - 31/01/2005

                                                                                      Abstract

                                                                                      The effect of protective glazing on the conservation of stained glass windows is evaluated in this project. This involves the characterisation of all relevant parameters for glass corrosion and paint alteration from a broad point of view, including physical (e.g. temperature and humidity changes), chemical (e.g. important pollutant gases) and microbiological parameters.

                                                                                      Researcher(s)

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                                                                                        Study of the influence of fine particles in indoor and outdoor air on chronic obstructive respiratory diseases in Antwerp and surroundings on the basis of an improved chemical analytical methodology. 01/01/2002 - 31/12/2005

                                                                                        Abstract

                                                                                        Prevalence rates of chronic obstructive respiratory diseases (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and asthma) seem to be increasing and have important health and economic effects. The aim of this project is to evaluate the influence of air pollution on the occurrence of this disease. The following objectives have been formulated: 1) The identification and follow-up of health parameters of airways (respiratory symptoms, lung function, bronchial hyperreactivity) and allergy in Antwerp and a number of municipalities of the province. 2) Determination of individual exposure ('exposure assessment'). 3) Evaluation of the association between the composition of the ambient air (particulate fractions) and the prevalence of respiratory symptoms, asthma and allergy in adults and children in Antwerp and a number of municipalities of the province. 4) In order to determine the relation between these respiratory symptoms and the chemical composition, a full chemical characterization of the fine and ultrafine fractions is needed. These fractions consist, apart from inorganic components, mainly of soot and organic compounds. Especially the analysis of the organic fraction is a very difficult matter. Therefore, we will evaluate the possibilities of Comprehensive Two-dimensional Gas Chromatography coupled with Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry for the analysis of the organic fraction. Also the other (inorganic) fractions will be characterized (both qualitatively as (semi)-quantitatively) using modern techniques, already available. As such, it should be possible to get a better insight into the relationship with previously mentioned respiratory diseases (COPD and asthma).

                                                                                        Researcher(s)

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                                                                                          Development of electron microprobe techniques for speciation and depth profiling of micro-particles and application to the Asian Dust phenomenon (co-operation FWO-Korean Science and Engineering Foundation). 01/01/2002 - 31/12/2004

                                                                                          Abstract

                                                                                          Electron probe microanalysis using an ultrathin entrance window for the energy-dispersive X-ray detector allows to detect also light elements like carbon, nitrogen and oxygen and hence to carry out chemical speciation at the single particle level. Electron microprobe analyses with variable electron energies in combination with sophisticated Monte Carlo calculations allow to assess quantitatively the presence of surface layers on individual particles. Both methodologies will be applied to atmospheric aerosols, namely from Asian Dust, a phenomenon that is important for the climate and air pollution in e.g. Korea.

                                                                                          Researcher(s)

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                                                                                            Chemical and biological characterisation of ambient air coarse, fine, and ultrafine particles for human health risk assessment in Europe (PAMCHAR). 01/01/2002 - 31/12/2004

                                                                                            Abstract

                                                                                            Participation in the physicochemical characterisation of ambient air PM in WP2 by conducting ED-XRF analyses of total elemental content in reference PM samples.

                                                                                            Researcher(s)

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                                                                                              Determination of light and heavy elements in marine aerosols by Grazing-Exit EPMA and Grazing-Exit PIXE. (Zoya SPOLNIK) 01/10/2001 - 30/09/2002

                                                                                              Abstract

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                                                                                                Characterization of calcite particles from marine waters with analytical spectrometric methods. (Laszlo BENCS) 01/10/2001 - 30/09/2002

                                                                                                Abstract

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                                                                                                  01/10/2001 - 30/09/2002

                                                                                                  Abstract

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                                                                                                    Characterisation of PM2.5 01/09/2001 - 31/08/2003

                                                                                                    Abstract

                                                                                                    This project is situated in the framework of the policy research project of AWI 'Evaluation of policy scenarios, concerning fine dust (PM2.5)', including the following tasks: 1. Carrying out sampling campaigns for the determination of a limited number of chemical parameters 2. Evaluating an efficient measuring methodology for the determination of both concentration and chemical characterization. 3. Interpreting the experimental data as a function of spatial spread of fine dust in the light of hypotheses

                                                                                                    Researcher(s)

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                                                                                                      FWO Visiting Postdoctoral Fellowship. (Felix Deutsch) 01/08/2001 - 31/05/2002

                                                                                                      Abstract

                                                                                                      Electron microprobe analysis (EPMA) will further be developed for the characterization of individual atmospheric aerosol particles. Emphasis will be on EMPA with ultrathin detector windows for the measurement of light elements and hence for the chemical speciation of particles at the individual particle level. Together with the application of passive diffusion tube samplers, for the collection of gaseous pollutants, the EMPA technique will be applied in studies about the relation between air pollution and public health (E.g. asthma)

                                                                                                      Researcher(s)

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                                                                                                        Environmental protection of works of art in display cases: chemical, microclimate and microbiological aspects 01/07/2001 - 30/06/2003

                                                                                                        Abstract

                                                                                                        This project invoJves the characterisation of the different microenvironmental parameters (microcrimate, chemistry of the inner atmosphere, microbiology) on which works of art are exposed in showcases. In a second part, proper alarm systems wil' be developed, which warn for unwanted increases in some of the relevant parameters (involving e.g. chemical sensors,...).

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                                                                                                          Research of background and anthropogenic aerosols in the Southern Siberia. (Alexander KAPLINSKY) 15/01/2001 - 14/01/2002

                                                                                                          Abstract

                                                                                                          The aim of the research is to get information about aerosol dispersion and chemical constitution including spatial and time dynamics during all seasons of the year. Better knowledge of nutrient concentrations in some areas of Siberia in order to better estimate eutrophication extent.

                                                                                                          Researcher(s)

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                                                                                                            Development of electron probe X-ray microanalysis for lighter elements and lower detection limits: application to environmental particles 01/01/2001 - 31/12/2004

                                                                                                            Abstract

                                                                                                            New measurement geometries en detectors will be used to improve the characteristics of electron microprobe analysis of individual environmental particles. In the grazing-emission measurement geometry, it is possible to reduce the detection limits because the Bremsstrahlung background is reduced. With an ultrathin-window energy-dispersive detector, it is possible to detect also light elements light C, N and O. Using different electron beam energies and simulating their interaction with the particles iteratively with Monte Carlo calculations can assess the surface layers on individual particles.

                                                                                                            Researcher(s)

                                                                                                            Research team(s)

                                                                                                              Methodology to assess the impact of PM2.5 and gasses to the development of asthma and allergy of young adults. 01/01/2001 - 31/12/2003

                                                                                                              Abstract

                                                                                                              Previous research reports have concluded that asthma complaints in the centre of Antwerp occur twice as frequently as in the southern agglomeration. Neither personal, nor environmental factors were able to explain this difference in occurrence. This study will attempt to define the impact of certain pollutants (especially PM2.5, i.e. the fraction of the atmospheric particles with a diameter less than 2.5 micrometer) on the respiratory health. To achieve this, the chemistry partner will analyse the air in a number of representative residences. The indoor concentration of PM2.5 and the composition of the gas phase will be measured, as well as the outdoor concentrations. The concentration of a certain number of pollutants will be determined. This way the individual exposure of the subjects can be determined. The samples will be taken in the residences of some of the participants of the subsequent research program from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS). The study will be executed in the same area as the earlier research since the large differences in respiratory health in this area could not be explained by differences in personal risk factors. Representative sample locations will be chosen by means of a fence that covers the area. Due to the combination of a medical follow-up of the subjects and the indoor and outdoor air sampling in and nearby their residences, the relation between a change in PM2.5 and the occurrence of respiratory complains and allergy can be assessed.

                                                                                                              Researcher(s)

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                                                                                                                Evaluation of policy options concerning fine dust (PM2.5). 01/01/2001 - 31/12/2003

                                                                                                                Abstract

                                                                                                                The consequences for the public health of air pollution by particles is now recognised as an important issue, although many uncertainties still exist concerning the explanation of these impacts and the features of particles that cause these impacts. This research wants, in the context of these uncertainties, to identify 'no-regret' policy options that are most relevant to limit the impacts in Flanders. To achieve this, a critical report concerning the knowledge of the effects and mechanisms of fine dust will be made, and this will help to identify several hypotheses. In a second phase an overview of the sources and the spreading of fine dust will be made. Additional measurements and analyses will complete the gaps reported in this overview. With the help of these updated information we can actualise the profits of the various policy issues by means of spread and impact models. With these results we can identify a set of no-regret policy rules, regarding the negative aspects of PM2.5.

                                                                                                                Researcher(s)

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                                                                                                                  Study of transport and deposition fluxes of heavy metals in the Tisza river after the recent massive pollution event. 11/12/2000 - 11/12/2003

                                                                                                                  Abstract

                                                                                                                  A catastrophic cyanide (from February 1 to February 12 2000) and a heavy metal pollution event (March 2000) occurred in the catchment area of the river Tisza. This pollution event has been highly discussed in the media world-wide, since it could result in a significant threat to the natural water and ecological system. The influence of the general conditions of the bottom of the river's oxbows and its water body on the complete ecological system of this area is large. Hence, the knowledge of the present status and possible development features has become very important. The necessity of the conservation of wildlife requires that a thorough study, concerning the rate and dynamics of the sediment accumulation is carried out. As our preliminary results indicate, the source of the pre-mentioned pollution could be the heavy metal mining in the catchment area of the Tisza and other related rivers. Analysis of the sediment particles with EPMA can investigate this theory. A great benefit can be received from the collaboration between the different partners in Flanders and Hungary. The experience and previous results of the Flemish research groups in this field can be combined with the results from the Hungarian groups obtained from a recent sediment research project.

                                                                                                                  Researcher(s)

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                                                                                                                    Role of oceanic production and dissolution of calcium carbonate in climate change. 01/12/2000 - 30/06/2005

                                                                                                                    Abstract

                                                                                                                    The overall objective of this research project is to contribute to a better understanding of the oceanic inorganic carbon cycle and its role in climate change. The specific objectives concern the study of processes associated with the oceanic production and dissolution of calcium carbonate in order to quantify the role of calcifying phytoplanktonic organisms in sequestering anthropogenic CO2. This research will be done in cooperation with VUB and ULB. Our lab will emphasize the following topics: *Collection of calcite particles out of the marine environment. *Classification of individual particles using automated EMPA. *Manual microanalysis of selected individual particles for their major and minor element composition. *Determination of surface layers on individual CaCO3 particles, using 'variable-energy' EMPA *Identification of planktonic species and their fragments.

                                                                                                                    Researcher(s)

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                                                                                                                      Comparative analysis of x-ray emission, electron and laser microprobe methods for the study of contents and structure of coastal aerosols. 01/10/2000 - 30/06/2001

                                                                                                                      Abstract

                                                                                                                      X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) with an economic energy-dispersive system will be optimized for trace analysis of loaded aerosol filters. The application potential for the study of marine aerosols will be compared with those of a conventional XRF system and with microprobe techniques.

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                                                                                                                        Determination of gaseous ammonia and of ammonium in aerosols on a measurement tower in Brasschaat, Belgium. 01/07/2000 - 31/01/2001

                                                                                                                        Abstract

                                                                                                                        Various techniques are compared for the determination of gaseous ammonia and of particulate ammonium in ambient air, on a measuring tower in Brasschaat, Belgium. We sample ammonia in an 'annular denuder' setup with a suitable coating, for subsequent analysis as ammonium by ion chromatography. Aerosols are collected on filters for subsequent ammonium determinations.

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                                                                                                                          Study of the air pollution in Wilrijk, Hoboken, Peer and the center of Antwerp. 01/06/2000 - 30/11/2001

                                                                                                                          Abstract

                                                                                                                          In this project, immission measurements of SO2, NO2, NO, O3, HF, HCl, benzene and volatile organic compounds will be carried out in order to elucidate the relatively high concentrations of these pollutants. The locations, which were choosen, are Wilrijk, Hoboken, the center of Antwerp and Peer (background). Moreover, the influence of the A12-motorway on this problem will be examined. These measurements will be carried out with the aid of passive sampling tubes. A validation of this method will be done as well. Therefore, a comparative sampling campaign with an annular denuder system will be carried out.

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                                                                                                                            Comparative analysis of x-ray emission, electron and laser microprobe methods for the study of contents and structure of coastal aerosols (North Sea and Black Sea). 01/02/2000 - 30/01/2001

                                                                                                                            Abstract

                                                                                                                            The aim of the project is to study the air/water exchange of nutrients, metals and organic mciropollutants at the North Sea. One of the analysis techniques used in this respect is X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. We also try to develop a suitable methodology for the analysis of marine aerosols by GEXRF.

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                                                                                                                              The relationship between asthma and allergy versus air pollution and allergen exposure in young adults of the Antwerp area. 01/01/2000 - 31/12/2002

                                                                                                                              Abstract

                                                                                                                              As a part of the follow-up of the EC Respiratory Health Survey young adults (20-45 year), living either in urban- or South-Suburban Antwerp who have participated in the initial survey in 1991-2 will be invited to participated in the repetition of the survey, i.e. collection of detailed questionnaire information, measurement of pulmonary function, search for allergy and airway hyperresponsiveness. Concomitantly an attempt will be made to assess individual exposure to domestic allergens as well as indoor and outdoor pollution. The study will be performed with the same methodology in several European centres.

                                                                                                                              Researcher(s)

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                                                                                                                                Light element determination in individual particles using "ultra-thin window EPMA" 01/01/2000 - 30/09/2000

                                                                                                                                Abstract

                                                                                                                                Using ultra-thin detector windows, the detection of elements with low atomic numbers (Z < 11) is now possible with energy dispersive electron probe microanalysis (EDX-EPMA). For this method, the measuring conditions and data-evaluation techniques will be optimised for (computer-controlled) measurements and the concentration determinations of light and heavier elements in atmospheric aerosol particles.

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                                                                                                                                  Soot and other atmospheric aerosols that affect human health and the global climate : the situation in South Africa as compared to Flanders. 20/12/1999 - 20/12/2002

                                                                                                                                  Abstract

                                                                                                                                  The incomplete combustion of coal, wood and, especially, diesel primarily produce soot and sulphate aerosols. The diameter of these aerosols is often below 2.5 ?m and this makes them respirable by men and has repercussions on climate. South Africa is very important with respect to this problem, because power plants are mostly coal-fired and there is a lot of wood-burning. In Flanders, soot is mostly originating from diesel burning. A comparison will be made by measurements of soot and sulfate concentrations in the fine dust fraction of aerosols.

                                                                                                                                  Researcher(s)

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                                                                                                                                    Evaluation of artefacts in mass measurements using TEOM monitors and determination of the chemical composition of aerosols: 1999-2000. 15/12/1999 - 15/08/2001

                                                                                                                                    Abstract

                                                                                                                                    The chemical characterization of aerosol fractions can be subdivided in 2 project parts. In a first part the chemical composition of aerosol samples, taken in Wezel, Tielrode, Zaventem en Oostrozebeke, will be investigated in order to elucidate the difference in weight, obtained from TEOM-measurements. In a second part, the aim is to take a first step in the elucidation of the observed differences in asthma within the Antwerp agglomeration. This will be done by trying to find a relationship between the composition of the respirable fraction of aerosols and the asthma prevalence.

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                                                                                                                                      Personeel and indoor exposure to fine particulate matter and its relationship to short term changes in caridovascular and respiratory health indicators. 01/10/1999 - 30/09/2000

                                                                                                                                      Abstract

                                                                                                                                      The aim of the investigation is to assess the relationship between ambient levels, indoor levels and personal exposure to fine particles and cardiovascular and respiratory health of elderly subjects.

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                                                                                                                                        Pollution of atmospheric particles along the French/Flemish coast: border transport and impact on the environment. 01/07/1999 - 31/12/2001

                                                                                                                                        Abstract

                                                                                                                                        Aerosols, especially the PM10 and PM2.5 fraction, cause air pollution, which will be the subject of future European legislation. It has recently been revealed that these particles can exhibit toxic effects on human health. The goal of this project is the increase of the knowledge of air quality in the Flemish and French coastal region. This will be done by calculating fluxes of a number of elements (Cd and Pb) and of certain gaseous pollutants (SOx, NOx, O3).

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                                                                                                                                          Studying the speciation of nutrients and metals in marine aerosols using low-Z element detection in electron probe X-ray micro-analysis. 01/02/1999 - 30/01/2000

                                                                                                                                          Abstract

                                                                                                                                          Application of a thin-window detector in electron microprobe analysis allows detecting low-Z elements, like carbon, nitrogen en oxygen. This allows studying the speciation of nutrients and metals in individual marine aerosol particles. Before such a new approach can be used in environmental research, much methodological work has to be done, e.g. concerning the quantitative nature of the analyses

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                                                                                                                                            Deposition of atmospheric aerosols particles on works of art in the Royal Museum of Fine Arts in Antwerp. 01/01/1999 - 31/12/2000

                                                                                                                                            Abstract

                                                                                                                                            By studying suspended aerosol particles and dust deposition (bulk and single particle analysis), gaseous pollutants and the local microclimate, the air pollutants that are most threathening for the works of art in the Museum are identified, their sources are elucidated and possible remedies are proposed.

                                                                                                                                            Researcher(s)

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                                                                                                                                              Deposition of heavy metals and nutrients over water surfaces (lakes and seas) due to anthropogenic processes : case of lake Balaton. 21/12/1998 - 22/12/2001

                                                                                                                                              Abstract

                                                                                                                                              Due to pollution, Lake Balaton, which is very important from both economic (touristical and food supply) and ecological point of view, is threatened. Therefore it is necessary to check the region for air and water quality. An important parameter is the deposition of aerosols and gases, coming from the industries and urban areas in the neighbourhood of the lake. In the context of the concern of the government in Hungary, a project determining these parameters is needed. Target compounds to which attention will be paid are heavy metals (chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, leed and mercury, all recognized as toxic), nutrient gases (ammonia, nitric acid and different types of nitrogen oxides) and particulates. Also, organic compounds will be considered, since anthropogenic sources are at the base of the pollution. In order to determine these compounds, several analysis techniques are available, the most important being ion chromatography, X-ray-fluorescence and electron probe micro-analysis. However, during the project, also other analysis techniques will be evaluated. The fluxes of air pollution deposition to the Lake will he assessed and compared to more obvious supplies like rivers and direct discharges. Since the sources of the air pollution supply will be identified, recommendations will be formulated to the Hungarian authorities to reduce the relevant emissions.

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                                                                                                                                                Evaluation of the chemical contamination of the North Sea 01/11/1998 - 30/04/2001

                                                                                                                                                Abstract

                                                                                                                                                This project implies: -producing the chapter on chemical pollution for the official Quality Status Report of the North Sea (particularly for organic compounds and radioactivity) -inventorising the fluxes of material from Belgium to the North Sea (particularly for organic compounds)

                                                                                                                                                Researcher(s)

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                                                                                                                                                  Study of the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals over the Netherlands via X-ray fluorescence analysis of aerosol filters. 01/07/1998 - 30/06/1999

                                                                                                                                                  Abstract

                                                                                                                                                  About 1000 aerosol-loaded filters collected at various locations in the Netherlands are analysed by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence. From the aerosol concentration levels, information about deposition fluxes of heavy metals are derived. Also, individual aerosol particles are studied by automated electron microprobe analysis.

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                                                                                                                                                    Influence of environmental effects on culturally important monuments in Bulgaria. 01/07/1998 - 31/12/1998

                                                                                                                                                    Abstract

                                                                                                                                                    One of the most culturally important monuments of Bulgaria, the Madara Horseman, has been deteriorating significantly in the last decennia. In this study, local air pollutants and atmospheric deposition are analysed and depth profiles of pollutants in the rock of the monument are studied, in order to identify possible air pollution effects.

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                                                                                                                                                      Study of geochemical cycles of particulate heavy metals and organic micropollutants in the North Sea environment. 01/10/1997 - 30/09/1999

                                                                                                                                                      Abstract

                                                                                                                                                      In the framework of a broad study project on biogeochemical cycles for the North Sea, the new technique of "grazing emission X-ray fluorescence" (GEXRF) will be optimized for sensitive multi-element determinations of micro-nutrients and micro-pollutants.

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                                                                                                                                                        Optimisation of the sampling and evaluation of modern micro analysis techniques for giant aerosol particles. 01/10/1997 - 30/09/1999

                                                                                                                                                        Abstract

                                                                                                                                                        Giant aerosol particles (> 4 um) are very important for e.g. the deposition of heavy metals ; they have been poorly characterized hitherto. Efficient sampling in windtunnels will be evaluated and optimised in combination with microanalysis of individual particles.

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                                                                                                                                                          Characterization of aerosols and evaluation of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Siberia and Kazachstan. 01/10/1997 - 30/09/1998

                                                                                                                                                          Abstract

                                                                                                                                                          With respect to the effects of atmospheric deposition, element speciation will be pursued, using electron microscopy with a special detector, by optimisation of the detection of light elements as carbon, nitrogen and oxygen.

                                                                                                                                                          Researcher(s)

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                                                                                                                                                            Geochemical and mineralogical study of naturel and anthropogenic aerosols collected in Siberia. 01/10/1997 - 30/06/1998

                                                                                                                                                            Abstract

                                                                                                                                                            Continental aerosols collected in Siberia are important in the context of e.g. global climate change problems. Using elemental analysis at the micro- and macro-scale and using diffraction techniques, the mineralogical composition, anthropogenic fraction, seasonal variability and genesis of Siberian aerosols will be studied.

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                                                                                                                                                              Determination of heavy metals in atmospheric aerosol (measuring network on heavy metals in suspended dust); optimization and characterization of the XRF technique. 01/09/1997 - 31/07/1998

                                                                                                                                                              Abstract

                                                                                                                                                              In order to allow fast and accurate determinations of a large number of heavy metals in aerosol loaded filters, the technique of wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence will be optimized with respect to the choice of the filter type and X-ray lines, calculation of matrix effects, reduction of detection limits, etc.

                                                                                                                                                              Researcher(s)

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                                                                                                                                                                Deterioration of prehistoric rock art in Karstic caves by mass tourism. 01/07/1997 - 30/06/1998

                                                                                                                                                                Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                For three caves in Spain (including Altamira) and one in Italy, with important prehistoric rock paintings (ca. 15000 years old), the geological, microbiological and chemical factors, responsible for the present deterioration of the paintings, are studied, and conservation actions will be proposed.

                                                                                                                                                                Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                  Biogeochemistry of nutrients, metals and organic micropollutants in the North Sea. 01/01/1997 - 31/03/2002

                                                                                                                                                                  Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                  For macro- and micro-nutrients, heavy metals and organic pollutants, the following aspects will be studied in detail for the North Sea : the atmospheric and river input, the speciation, behaviour and transformation, and the sink processes.

                                                                                                                                                                  Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                  Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                    Application of modern microanalytical methods for the chemical characterization of individual environmental particles. 01/01/1997 - 31/12/2000

                                                                                                                                                                    Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                    Characterization of environmental samples at the individual particle level often allows to gather more insight into sources, source processes and transformation of pollutants. Several micro-analysis techniques (EPXMA, SAED, micro-FTIR, TEM, micro-PIXE, SIMS,...) will be evaluated and optimized in this context, for atmospheric aerosols and aqueous suspensions.

                                                                                                                                                                    Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                    Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                      Micro-analysis methods for individual aerosol particles : application in the context of global climate change. 01/10/1996 - 30/09/1998

                                                                                                                                                                      Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                      Identification of individual aerosol particles types has become important since it has been postulated that aerosols may well compensate for greenhouse effect. In this study, the potential of various microanalysis techniques will be compared and they will be applied to aerosol samples from remote areas.

                                                                                                                                                                      Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                      Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                        GEXRF for environmental ultratrace analysis. 01/10/1996 - 30/09/1997

                                                                                                                                                                        Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                        Grazing emission X-ray fluorescence (GEXRF) is a very new inorganic ultratrace analysis technique (only a prototype exists at present) in which the XRF-emission of a sample on a flat carrier is measured only under grazing angle. Hence the background is very low and spectacularly low detection limits should be reached. The environmental applications of GEXRF (water, aerosols) will be evaluated and optimized.

                                                                                                                                                                        Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                        Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                          Study of the geochemical cycle of particulate heavy metals and organic micropollutants in the North Sea environment. 01/10/1996 - 31/03/1997

                                                                                                                                                                          Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                          After further optimization of some micro- and trace analysis techniques and after a relevant literature survey, aerosol and suspension samples will be collected over the North Sea and analysed. The data will be interpreted in terms of biogeochemical cycles of particulate matter in the North Sea.

                                                                                                                                                                          Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                          Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                            Development of evaluation criteria, prediction parameters and control methods concerning the effect of seasalt on monuments. 01/05/1996 - 30/04/1999

                                                                                                                                                                            Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                            In profiles from the coast to the interior, starting from Nantes, Santiago de Compostela, Naples and Heraklion, the decreasing effect of seasalt on limestone monuments will be evaluated, via measurements of atmospheric seasalt deposition, salt content in weathering crusts and physical characteristics of the stone. Laboratory simulations will be carried out. The efficiency of protecting agents will be studied.

                                                                                                                                                                            Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                            Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                              Application of X-ray fluorescence to environmental samples. 01/03/1996 - 30/09/1996

                                                                                                                                                                              Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                              This project implied a grant to Dr. Nico Civici (Institute for Nuclear Physics, Tirana, Albania) to optimize, during 6 months, the sample preparation for X-ray fluorescence analysis of environmental samples and to apply this technique to samples for geochemical mapping from Albania.

                                                                                                                                                                              Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                              Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                Deterioration of prehistoric rock paintings in karstic environments by mass tourism : integration study for conservation. 01/02/1996 - 30/06/1999

                                                                                                                                                                                Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                For three caves in karstic environments in Spain (including Altamira) and one in Italy, with important prehistoric rock paintings (ca. 15000 years old), the project will study which are the geological, microbiological and chemical factors responsible for the deterioration of the paintings and how optimal conservation can be achieved.

                                                                                                                                                                                Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                  Evaluation of environmental risks of inappropriate use of technologies and mass tourism. 01/02/1996 - 31/01/1999

                                                                                                                                                                                  Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                  The project focuses mostly on the indoor environment of three musea : the Correr Museum in Venice, the Cultural Historical Museum in Vienna and the Tate Gallery in London. While the other teams will study the microclimate and the gaseous and biological pollutant, we will mostly be concerned with (single particle analysis of) atmospheric aerosols and their deposition onto paintings.

                                                                                                                                                                                  Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                  Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                    Free tropospheric aerosols and their mixing in the marine boundary layer. 01/02/1996 - 31/01/1998

                                                                                                                                                                                    Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                    This study is a small part of the large-scale Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) which aims at studying the effect of European and Sahara aerosols on the climate in the Eastern Atlantic region. By measurements at the coast and on a mountain top in Teneriffe, this subproject will identify the aerosol in the marine boundary layer, its mixing with tropospheric aerosols and the resulting climatic effects.

                                                                                                                                                                                    Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                    Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                      Application of isotopic mass spectrometry for the study of the weathering of natural stones. 01/01/1996 - 31/12/1996

                                                                                                                                                                                      Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                      A procedure, involving isotopic mass spectrometry is developed for the precise determination of 34S/32S (and possibly 18O/16O) ratios in natural stones, weathering crusts and SO2, is being developed. This should allows detailed identification of the sulphur sources and elucidation of the weathering mechanisms.

                                                                                                                                                                                      Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                      Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                        Structure and composition of soot as a function of its source process. 01/10/1995 - 30/09/1999

                                                                                                                                                                                        Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                        Techniques for the generation, sampling, micro-analysis (electron microscopy, EELS, electron diffraction) and automated image analysis of individual soot particles are developed. Systematic measurements will be carried out on soot particles from different environments.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                        Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                          Optimisation of the sampling and evaluation of modern micro analysis techniques for giant aerosol particles. 01/10/1995 - 30/09/1997

                                                                                                                                                                                          Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                          Giant aerosol particles (> 4 um) are very important for e.g. the deposition of heavy metals ; they have been poorly characterized hitherto. Efficient sampling in windtunnels will be evaluated and optimised in combination with microanalysis of individual particles.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                          Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                            Study of the geochemical cycle of particulate heavy metals and organic micropollutants in the North Sea environment. 01/10/1995 - 31/03/1996

                                                                                                                                                                                            Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                            After further optimization of some micro- and trace analysis techniques and after a relevant literature survey, aerosol and suspension samples will be collected over the North Sea and analysed. The data will be interpreted in terms of biogeochemical cycles of particulate matter in the North Sea.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                            Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                              Electron microscopy study of the chemical speciation of sulphur in atmospheric aerosol particles. 01/10/1995 - 31/03/1996

                                                                                                                                                                                              Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                              An attempt is made to derive information on the speciation of sulphur in individual atmospheric aerosol particles from the shape of the spectral peaks in electron probe X-ray microanalysis.

                                                                                                                                                                                              Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                              Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                Comparative analyses, literature search and reporting on the sulphur-smoke network. 01/09/1995 - 30/06/1997

                                                                                                                                                                                                Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                Comparison of the perspectives of ion chromatography, acidimetry and chemoluminescence for routine SO2 measurements, using literature searches and experimental measurements, in the framework of the Flemish "sulphur-smoke" network.

                                                                                                                                                                                                Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Grazing emission X-ray fluorescence for ultra trace analysis in environmental applications. 01/07/1995 - 30/06/1997

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                  "Grazing-emission" X-ray fluorescence (GEXRF) is a very new trace analysis technique, related to total reflection and wavelength-dispersive XRF. The appli cations of GEXRF for environmental research are evaluated and optimized.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Characterization of aerosols and evaluation of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in Siberia and Kazakhstan. 01/07/1995 - 31/12/1995

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Analysis of individual particles and trace analysis of atmospheric aerosols collected in different parts of Siberia and Kazakhstan in an effort to characterize the continental aerosol wich may play an important role in global climate change and to assess the potentially important heavy metal deposition.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                    Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Evaluation and optimisation of grazing emission X-ray fluorescence for trace analysis. 01/01/1995 - 31/12/1998

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Methods for sample preparation for ultratrace analysis by the new technique of grazing emission X-ray fluorescence (GEXRF) are optimized. The characteristics of GEXRF with respect to sensitivity, accuracy, applicability, etc. are evaluated.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Characterization of aerosols and evaluation of at mospheric deposition of heavy metals in Siberia and Kazachstan. 01/01/1995 - 30/04/1997

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Aerosols in Siberia and Kazachstan are important in the context of Global change (aerosols might compen sate the greenhouse effect but little is known hit herto about the immense Siberia), because both extre mely remote and heavily polluted areas exists in Siberia and because of the atmospheric pollution threat to Lake Baikal. This project aims at charac terizing aerosols in Siberia and Kazachstan by single particle analysis and assessing the deposition of heavy metals via trace analysis.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Investigation of instrumental trace analysis for quality control in the drinking and mineral water industry. 01/01/1995 - 31/12/1996

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                          After an inventory of the quality norms and the usual analysis techniques for heavy metals in drinking water in E. and W. Europe has been made, the potenti als in this field of total-reflection and grazing emission X-ray fluorescence will be compared with those of AAS, ICP-ES, etc.

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Control of the pollution of the North Sea by radioac tivity and heavy metals in aerosols; estimation of the deposition fluxes. 01/12/1994 - 30/11/1995

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                            By trace analyses and radioactivity measurements of aerosols as a function of the particle size, the atmospheric deposition fluxes of heavy metals and radioactivity to the Southern Bight of the North Sea will be assessed.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                            Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Atmospheric aerosols in the Asian FSU. 15/10/1994 - 31/05/1998

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                              This study focuses on atmospheric aerosols in Siberia and the Asian FSU. Hitherto practically no measurements have been done on this aerosols. Yet the may be crucial in the context of the global climate change and of heavy metal deposition eg. to the ecologically important Lake Baikal.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Optimization of micro-analysis methods for individual environmental particles. 01/10/1994 - 30/09/1996

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Electron microprobe analysis and FTIR-microscopy will be optimized for the characterization of individual environmental particles and applied to giant aerosol particles from the marine environment.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Micro-analysis methods for individual aerosol particles : application in the context of global climate change. 01/10/1994 - 30/09/1996

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Identification of individual aerosol particles types has become important since it has been postulated that aerosols may well compensate for greenhouse effect. In this study, the potential of various microanalysis techniques will be compared and they will be applied to aerosol samples from remote areas.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Glow discharge mass spectrometry for the analysis of non-conductive materials. 01/10/1994 - 30/09/1996

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Glow discharge mass spectroscopy can advantageously be applied to the multi-element trace analysis of conductive samples. The potential for non-conductive material will further be evaluated and possible improved.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Glow discharge mass spectrometry for multi-element trace analysisì 01/10/1994 - 31/12/1995

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      An analytical-methodological study will be dedicated to glow-discharge to glow-discharge mass spectrometry, a new technique for sensitive multi-element analysis. Applications to metals, semi-conductors and isolating materials will be investigated.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Study of the mixing of seasalt and aluminosilicate particles in the marine troposphere. 01/10/1994 - 30/06/1995

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        By single particle analysis of aerosols above the North Sea, one often finds agglomerated particles of seasalt and aluminosilicates (flyash and soil dust). This agglomeration leads to larger particles and to higher deposition velocities for heavy metals. By modelling, this study aims at elucidating wheter these agglomerated particles are the result of coagulation in the air or of resuspension from the sea surface.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Marine spray and polluted atmosphere as damaging factors for monuments in the Mediterranean coastal area. 01/01/1994 - 31/12/1995

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          For 4 specific historical monuments (in Eleusis, Malta, Cadiz, Bari), a relation is sought between weathering processes and environmental parameters, via analysis of stone surfaces, weathering crusts, air and rainwater.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Application of isotopic mass spectrometry for the study of the weathering of natural stones. 01/01/1994 - 31/12/1995

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            A procedure, involving isotopic mass spectrometry is developed for the precise determination of 34S/32S (and possibly 18O/16O) ratios in natural stones, weathering crusts and SO2, is being developed. This should allows detailed identification of the sulphur sources and elucidation of the weathering mechanisms.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Research on joints in industrial installations. 01/12/1993 - 30/06/1994

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Types, liability, leak rate, levels (national and international), analysis techniques are evaluated for joints used in different industrial installations with respect to safety.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The analysis of non-conducting materials (geological, ceramics, e.a.) with glow discharge mass spectrometry 01/10/1993 - 31/01/1996

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Parameter optimization for the analysis of non-conducting powders (mixed with a conducting matrix) and for the non-conducting solids (covered with a conducting electrode). Determine methodology and standard analysis conditions with respect to sensitivity, RSF, detection limits, accuracy, precision and speed of analysis.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry : applications in environmental research. 01/10/1993 - 30/09/1995

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The environmental applications of total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) are investigated and compa red to those of conventional XRF.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Optimization of micro-analysis methods for individual environmental particles. 01/10/1993 - 30/09/1994

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Electron microprobe analysis and FTIR-microscopy will be optimized for the characterization of individual environmental particles and applied to giant aerosol particles from the marine environment.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Glow discharge mass spectrometry for the analysis of non-conductive materials. 01/10/1993 - 30/09/1994

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Glow discharge mass spectroscopy can advantageously be applied to the multi-element trace analysis of conductive samples. The potential for non-conductive material will further be evaluated and possible improved.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Application of isotopic mass spectrometry for the study of the weathering of natural stones. 01/10/1993 - 31/12/1993

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        A procedure, involving isotopic mass spectrometry is developed for the precise determination of 34S/32S (and possibly 18O/16O) ratios in natural stones, weathering crusts and SO2, is being developed. This should allows detailed identification of the sulphur sources and elucidation of the weathering mechanisms.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Study of the geochemical cycle of particulate heavy metals and organic micropollutants in the North Sea environment. 01/04/1993 - 30/09/1993

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          After further optimization of some micro- and trace analysis techniques and after a relevant literature survey, aerosol and suspension samples will be collected over the North Sea and analysed. The data will be interpreted in terms of biogeochemical cycles of particulate matter in the North Sea.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Marine spray and polluted atmosphere as damaging factors for monuments in the Mediterranean coastal area. 01/01/1993 - 31/12/1995

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            For 4 specific historical monuments (in Eleusis, Malta, Cadiz, Bari), a relation is sought between weathering processes and environmental parameters, via analysis of stone surfaces, weathering crusts, air and rainwater.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Study of the characteristics of micro-analysis techniques for the chemical characterization of particles, and of their applicability for environmental samples. 01/01/1993 - 31/12/1993

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The merits and disadvantages and the applicability to single particle analysis of environmental samples, will be compared for various micro-analysis techniques, namely EMPA, LAMMA, micro-PIXE, micro-FTIR and SIMS.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Chemical characterization of aerosols and evaluation of atmosferic deposition of heavy metals in Siberia. 01/01/1993 - 31/12/1993

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Atmosferic aerosols are collected in both remote areas and industrially polluted locations in Siberia, for single particle analysis and heavy metal determinations. Siberian aerosols are important in the context of global climate change and of local pollution problems.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Control of the pollution of the North Sea with respect to heavy metals and redaction of a synthesis rapport concerning the present situation. 01/11/1992 - 30/09/1993

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The present data on the deposition fluxes of heavy metals and radioactivity into the North Sea will be summarized. The possibilities for monitoring heavy metal deposition will be explored, and a monitoring program will be initiated.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Atmospheric aerosols: characterization of individual particles, determination of heavy metals, impact on rain acidification, identification of aerosol sources, relation with ozone formation. 01/11/1992 - 30/06/1993

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    By helicopter measurements over Belgium, aerosols will be collected as a function of altitude for diverse meteorological conditions. Heavy metals will be determined; individual particle types and organic surface coatings will be identified. Relations with ozone and acid rain formation will be sought.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Study of the geochemical cycle of particulate heavy metals and organic micropollutants in the North Sea environment. 01/10/1992 - 31/03/1997

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      After further optimization of some micro- and trace analysis techniques and after a relevant literature survey, aerosol and suspension samples will be collected over the North Sea and analysed. The data will be interpreted in terms of biogeochemical cycles of particulate matter in the North Sea.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Optimization of micro-analysis methods for individual environmental particles. 01/10/1992 - 30/09/1993

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Electron microprobe analysis and FTIR-microscopy will be optimized for the characterization of individual environmental particles and applied to giant aerosol particles from the marine environment.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Glow discharge mass spectrometry for the analysis of non-conductive materials. 01/10/1992 - 30/09/1993

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Glow discharge mass spectroscopy can advantageously be applied to the multi-element trace analysis of conductive samples. The potential for non-conductive material will further be evaluated and possible improved.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Treatment of electron microprobe analysis data for individual particles using fuzzy clustering techniques 01/10/1992 - 31/12/1992

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In the automated electron microprobe analysis of numerous individual particles, enormous data sets are generated. To handle these, recent numerical techniques, such as fuzzy clustering, will be applied.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Study of the characteristics and mobilization of major elements and heavy metals in sediments of the Rio Paraguay. 01/06/1992 - 31/05/1993

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Of many sediment samples from the Rio Paraguay, the inorganic composition (major elements, heavy metals) will be determined. The mobility and availability of the heavy metals will be measured in laboratory experiments

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Study of the characteristics of modern micro-analysis techniques for the characterization of individual particles, and their applicability to environmental samples. 01/01/1992 - 31/12/1992

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The potential of several recent micro-analysis techniques (SIMS, PMS, micro-FTIR, FT-ICR-MS) for the characaterisation of individual particles in environmental samples, will be assessed and compared to more common techniques such as EMPA and LAMMA.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The analysis of non-conducting materials (geological, ceramics, e.a.) with glow discharge mass spectrometry 01/10/1991 - 30/09/1993

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Parameter optimization for the analysis of non-conducting powders (mixed with a conducting matrix) and for the non-conducting solids (covered with a conducting electrode). Determine methodology and standard analysis conditions with respect to sensitivity, RSF, detection limits, accuracy, precision and speed of analysis.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Laser microprobe mass spectrometry : optimization of sample preparation, standardization, applications in biological (see abstract) and biomedical research 01/10/1991 - 30/09/1992

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Study of metals in gills of fish exposed to elevated aluminium concentrations (acid rain) or heavy metals: localization, identification and if possible quantification by means of micro-analytical techniques (LAMMA, EDX, EM, PIXE)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Conservation of historic buildings, monuments and associated ì cultural propertyì 01/06/1991 - 31/05/1994

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      In collaboration with other participants in this project, limestone, marble and sandstone are exposed to different environmental conditions and the stone decay are studied. Comparisons are made with the results of chamber studies. Emphasis is placed on the use of micro-analysis.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        15/01/1991 - 15/11/1991

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          07/12/1990 - 15/11/1991

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            01/10/1990 - 30/09/1991

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Chemical transformation processes and measurement of volatile ì acids and ammoniumcompounds over the North Seaì 01/09/1990 - 31/08/1993

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Via laboratory experiments and field measurements, the interactions of marine aerosols with volatile acids and ammonium compounds will be assessed. Sampling will be carried out over the North Sea and in less polluted marine reference areas. Different micro- and trace analysis techniques will be involved.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                01/09/1990 - 28/02/1991

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  01/02/1990 - 31/07/1991

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    01/01/1990 - 31/12/1992

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      01/10/1989 - 30/09/1990

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        01/10/1989 - 30/09/1990

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          01/10/1989 - 30/09/1990

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            01/12/1987 - 31/05/1991

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Research team(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              01/10/1987 - 30/09/1990

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Abstract

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Researcher(s)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Research team(s)