What is life? The scope of Biology. Water, the base of life. Chemical building blocks of life: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids. The origin of life. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure: the plasma membrane, the endoplasmic reticulum, the nucleus, the Golgi apparatus, other organelles, the flagellum. Interactions of the cell with its environment, passage of materials into and out of cells, intercellular connections. The neuron (structure and function) as an example of membrane functioning. Energy and metabolism, enzymes. ATP production, glycolysis, oxidative respiration, fermentation. Photosynthesis, light-dependent and light-independent reactions. Cell division, mitosis, meiosis, gametogenesis, fertilization. Genetics, Mendel's laws, chromosomes, human genetics, genetics of behaviour. Synthesis of proteins, transcription, translation, gene regulation. epigenetic processes. Mutations and genetic manipulation, cancer. Evolution, natural selection, micro- and macroevolution.
The structure of the eukaryotic cell is demonstrated with a light microscope, as well as some tissues, mitosis, meiosis, gametogenesis and embryonic development.