This course, which is part 2 of the course of Politicial and Intsitutional History of Belgium and the Netherlands, is taught in the second term. It concentrates on the political history of modern-day Belgium, starting with its annexation by France in 1795. The approach will continue to be largely ‘institutional’, with particular attention to the development of the balance between the legislative and executive powers, as well as the history of the political parties and their ideological programmes. This charting of institutional evolution will again be closely linked to the continuing expansion of the sphere of influence of the domestic political structure. As far as this latter aspect is concerned, the emphasis will be placed on the development of the Belgian socio-economic model, the emergence of a Belgian ‘world view’ and the history of the difficult relationship between the regional communities in Belgium, together with an analysis of the resulting reforms of the state structure.