The 3 ECTS course "European Societies" seeks to initiate students to Europe as a political, economic and social entity, as well as a project to bring about, in the words of the Treaty of Rome, 'an ever closer union among the peoples of Europe'. The course starts with the emergence and development of the European project after the Second World War and it introduces students to the workings of the key European institutions. The course seeks to make students aware of the inherent challenges to (purposeful) socio-economic integration in the face of Europe's massive economic, social, cultural and institutional diversity. At the same time, students will be made aware that much has been achieved. Yet despite marked progress, and indeed remarkable upward convergence on a number of fronts - for example living standards or equal rights - the social and economic challenges facing Europe remain formidable. We will consider alternative ways forward, at the national and supra-national level.