Uniform Plane Waves
Maxwell Equations in phasor form, Wave Equation, Uniform Plane wave in Homogeneous, free space, dielectric, conducting medium. Polarization: Linear, circular & Elliptical polarization, unpolarized wave. Reflection of plane waves, Normal incidence, oblique incidence, Electromagnetic Power and Poynting theorem and vector.
Fundamental equations for free space propagation, Friis Transmission equation. Attenuation over reflecting surface, Effect of earth‟s curvature. Ground, sky & space wave propagations. Structure of atmosphere. Characteristics of ionized regions. Effects of earth‟s magnetic field. Virtual height, MUF, Skip distance. Ionospheric abnormalities. Multi-hoppropagation. Space link geometry. Characteristics of Wireless Channel: Fading, Multipath delay spread, Coherence Bandwidth, and Coherence Time.
Introduction, Types of Antenna, Radiation Mechanism. Antenna Terminology: Radiation pattern, radiation power density, radiation intensity, directivity, gain, antenna efficiency, half power beam width, bandwidth, antenna polarization, input impedance, antenna radiation efficiency,effective length, effective area, reciprocity. Radiation Integrals: Vector potentials A, J, F, M, Electric and magnetic fields electric and magnetic current sources, solution of inhomogeneous vector potential wave equation, far field radiation
Analysis of Linear and Loop antennas: Infinitesimal dipole, small dipole, and finite length dipole half wave length dipole, small circular loop antenna. Complete Analytical treatment of all these elements. Unit V
Antenna Arrays: Two element array, pattern multiplication N-element linear array, uniform amplitude and spacing, broad side and end-fire array, N-element array: Uniform spacing, non uniform amplitude, array factor, binomial and DolphTchebyshev array. Planar Array, Circular Array, Log Periodic Antenna, YagiUda Antenna Array
Antennas and Applications
Structural details, dimensions, radiation pattern, specifications, features and applications of following Antennas: Hertz & Marconi antennas, V- Antenna, Rhombic antenna. TW antennas. Loop antenna, Whip antenna, Biconical, Helical, Horn, Slot, Microstrip, Turnstile, Super turnstile & Lens antennas. Antennas with parabolic reflectors