In this course the nature of scientific knowledge and methods are discussed with also focus on the status of social-scientific knowledge. In this course emhasis is put on four important strands of qualitative and quantitative research in training and educational sciences: phenomenography, case-study, survey and experiment. You are introduced to different forms and examples of research, research methods, techniques and designs as well as the features of a research plan. You learn about the interrelatedness between problem statement, research questions and the choice of a research design and techniques. Important concepts regarding how to judge the quality of scientific work are introduced, such as reliability and validity.