Climate and energy are societal problems and challenges. Climate change is to a large extent driven by societal factors, and influenced by decisions taken every day (often unconsciously) by individuals, companies, local entities, national governments and international institutions. In order to be able to take conscious action, put (and keep) climate change on the political and policy agenda and move toward coherent policy, it is important to gain understanding of policy and market mechanisms, decision-making processes and the role various actors (can) play.
Methods for analyzing and decision making develop from standard project-appraisal tools regarding decision analysis to energy management systems also related to legal regulations. A separate lecture is devoted to societal decision making on complex, unique and almost irreversible development trajectories.