Ongoing projects

Gender pension gap in Europe: Determinants and perspectives for the future. 01/01/2021 - 31/12/2024

Abstract

Despite the abundance of research on the gender wage gap, there is relatively little research on the extent to which women's lower lifetime labour market outcomes translate into lower pension outcomes, taking cross-country perspective. This becomes even more relevant having in mind an ageing population, the falling ratio of the number of people of working age for every person of pensionable age, and the rising proportion of single-person households in Europe. This research aims to: (a) estimate the gender differentials in pension coverage/income in Europe based on the most recent available data, taking into account the life-course perspective, demographic and economic factors, household roles and preferences, and individual country heterogeneity; (b) answer the question whether there is a trade-off between the wages and occupational pensions and whether this differs by gender; (c) quantify the gender differences in the discount rate, i.e., the extent to which men and women differ in terms of valuing the present over the future; and (d) answer what is the role of the family members (partner, children) in securing women's old-age income. The findings will extend the theoretical knowledge in pension economics, indicate whether the current retirement systems in Europe are able to provide adequate pensions and offer insurance against an unexpectedly long life for both men and women, and shed light on policy challenges when trying to narrow the gender gap in old-age income.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Diversity in schools, socialization, marriages and the labor market. 01/01/2021 - 31/12/2024

Abstract

Recent trends in migration trends in Western countries remind us that diversity is inevitable in human societies. Ensuring that this does not hinder their well-functioning is a primary challenge. The aim of this project is to understand the mechanisms through which social contact among people of different backgrounds affects behavior. In particular, we will provide causal estimates investigating when contact with minorities induces positive effects on behavior in two economic relevant contexts: the family and the labor market. To do so, we will exploit administrative data from Denmark and a unique survey conducted in the US to measure variation in inter-ethnic exposure across cohorts within schools. Using these data, we will analyze the impact of different types of contact in schools on the quality of interracial marriages and on labor market integration. Finally, we will rationalize these findings in a model where agents decide with whom to interact and provide a local public good to their neighbors, a strategic interaction that captures cooperation in an abstract way. Indeed, to design effective policies that change group composition we believe that it is important to understand how people would change their patterns of socialization after the intervention. Answering the basic question of whether increasing contact between diverse groups in schools improves intergroup relations has direct policy implications on the best way to mix pupils.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Diffusion of Misinformation in Social Networks. 01/10/2020 - 30/09/2023

Abstract

Despite the availability of large amount of data about economic, social, and political phenomena, misinformation is ubiquitous in society. Platforms like Facebook and Twitter allow agents to receive and share a lot of information in a very short time and to have an easy access to each other's opinion. This leads to faster dissemination of news and faster social learning. But it also leaves the door open to the spread of misinformation such as fake-news, as well as to opinion manipulation. This project aims at studying to key factors of the spread of misinformation: (i), how misinformation arises and, (ii), how it propagates. I will investigate the origin of misinformation and of initial biases in processing information. To do, I will consider both cultural and psychological factors, such as community identity, the intergenerational transmission of values, and the role of emotions (i.e., frustration and anger). I will study how behaviors and information spread through different kinds of social and strategic interactions. The project will analyze how social interactions, and the induced structure of the network of communication, influence the aggregation of information, the incentives to share or to gather information, and the failure of social learning processes.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Fiscal Policy, Credit Cycles, and the Macroeconomy. 01/05/2020 - 30/04/2024

Abstract

The global financial crisis reignited interest in understanding how credit fluctuations affect macroeconomic outcomes. It is now widely recognized that private debt cycles shape macroeconomic fragility and crisis risk. In response to the crisis, many countries adopted countercyclical fiscal policy, which moved government spending, taxation, and deficit financing to the forefront of policy debates. The aim of this project is to understand the interplay of credit cycle fluctuations, business cycle fluctuations, and fiscal policy. First, we will develop a business cycle model in which household debt matters for the propagation and amplification of fiscal interventions. The model will be used to test the significance and magnitude of the private debt ccelerator effect with respect to fiscal policy changes.Counterfactual policy simulations will provide insights into how the credit cycle influences the fiscal transmission mechanism. The second part of the project will explore how fiscal policy by itself shapes private credit cycles. In particular, we will provide evidence on the effects of fiscal policy shocks on credit growth. Finally, we will turn to systematic (rule-based) stabilization policy and explore whether there is a trade-off between business cycle stabilization and credit cycle stabilization. Understanding the interplay between fiscal policy and credit cycles would be of great value for the design of policies aiming to promote macroeconomic and financial stability.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Searching for partners via friends: implications for household formation and economic decisions 01/10/2019 - 30/09/2023

Abstract

The aim of this project is to understand the interplay between the search for partners, household formation and economic decisions. Making an investment in the ability to search for a better partner affects the characteristics of the match, but also the bargaining position in the relationship by determining the quality of the outside options in case of divorce. We will introduce search frictions in the marriage market proposing a matching model where search frictions are captured by a matching function or by search of partners via social networks. Modeling search behavior implies a better description of the intra-household decision process, which in turn yields a more powerful analysis of household choice behavior and its welfare implications on spouses and their children. The aim of this project, which is part of a bigger research agenda, is to estimate non-parametrically these models using revealed preferences analysis to provide a structural description of the within-household allocation as a function of the search behavior defining the current and future outside options on marriage markets.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Search behavior in the marriage market, household formation and economic decisions: a revealed preference analysis. 01/01/2019 - 31/12/2022

Abstract

The aim of this project is to explicitly integrate marriage decisions in the wider context of household decisions when divorce is a possible option. This project wants to better understand the interplay between the search for partners, household formation and economic decisions. The idea is that making an investment in the ability to search for a better partner affects the characteristics of the match, but also the bargaining position in the relationship by determining the quality of the outside options in case of divorce. We will introduce search frictions in the marriage market using two approaches. First, we will propose a matching model where search frictions are captured by a matching function. Secondly, motivated by the empirical observation that most spouses meet through friends, we will study a marriage market where the choice of partners is constrained by one's social networks. We will estimate non-parametrically the models using revealed preferences to provide a structural description of the within-household allocation as a function of the search behavior defining the current and future outside options on marriage markets. Overall, modeling search behavior implies a better description of the intra-household decision process, which in turn yields a more powerful analysis of household choice behavior and its welfare implications on spouses and their children.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Investment in public transport: a real options approach 01/01/2018 - 31/12/2021

Abstract

Current real options models only evaluate the impact of demand uncertainty on the timing of public transport investments. This project considers an investor in public transport infrastructure who maximizes social welfare and an investor in public transport service that maximizes profit. By the development of a sequential real option game, this project will evaluate how demand uncertainty affects the optimal capacity level and optimal timing of both investments and how the investment in public transport infrastructure influences the investment in public transport services. To make relevant decisions for the public transport sector, existing real option game models need to be adapted: the investment is considered as a determinant of public transport demand. The integration of such feedback relation is novel and unconventional in the field of the real options theory. Furthermore, also optimal policy measures to induce a welfare maximizing behavior of the transport service provider will be evaluated. This research project will not only advance the current state-ofthe- art, it also contributes to ongoing discussions on the liberalization of the public transport sector. By setting up a collaboration between the University of Antwerp, Tilburg University, the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, and Hasselt University, we have an outstanding scientific team that has proven to produce original research in the field of transport economics and the real options theory.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Public economics. 01/09/2017 - 31/08/2022

Abstract

It has long been recognized that most economic transactions do not take place on anonymous markets but rather they are bilateral transactions among two parties that need to know each other and to meet in order for the exchange to take place. Hence, one's network of social interactions is important in shaping own economic outcomes. This is the case for example on the labor market: many studies showed how relevant one's social ties are in determining wages and employment opportunities. In my future research I intend to continue my work on the understanding of the interplay between social interactions and economic activities, from two complementary perspectives. First, I will empirically study the effect of social interactions on economic outcomes in two applications, that is, the marriage market and the labor market. In many situations and countries, people have a negative attitudes towards the members of a certain group because of statistical discrimination or preferences. Stereotyping have implications in many markets, such as the marriage market and the labor market. In my research, I will test the so-called contact hypothesis: social interactions with member of the discriminated group might affects one's expectations regarding their behavior or characteristics, and in turn reduce statistical or taste discrimination. Regarding the marriage market, I will analyze whether the racial composition of school students' cohorts impacts romantic relationships later in life. In the case of the labor market, I will focus on gender differences in the allocation of workers to firms. Second, I will study the implications of the fact that, once agents realize that their social ties can affect their economic outcomes, they might strategically invest in social interactions. As a result, it is difficult to disentangle the effect of peers on behavior from peer selection. Since, it is not always possible to devise strategies according to which there is an exogenous variations in peers, I will develop models that can inform us on how to disentangle empirically the effects of peer selection and peers effects on behavior. I will apply these techniques to three applications: the use of referrals in the labor markets, the diffusion of rumors in social networks and taxation in the private provision of public goods. On the one hand, my domain covers both modern social and economic network theory and the more traditional search and matching literature. On the other hand, it also ranges from theoretical and to applied work: I strongly abide with the view that, while theory is needed to guide empirical analysis, empirical analysis provides a constant source of inspiration and discipline for theoretical developments. My research will hopefully advance our understanding of economic activity by providing a framework that explicitly takes into account the fact that most economic interactions are influenced by social relationships among people. This will provide us with policy implications to alleviate the inefficiencies and inequalities that emerge in decentralized networked markets.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Increased reimbursement and access to medical care 03/03/2017 - 01/07/2021

Abstract

We investigate the effects of lowering co-payments on medical consumption of low income families. To this end, we exploit a large scale, randomized policy intervention aimed at encouraging take-up of the Beneficiary of Increased Reimbursement Statute. We use administrative health insurance data to measure the budget impact and the effects on specific medical consumption patterns. We perform an additional survey to analyze the effect on subjective unmet need.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Past projects

Exploratory research regarding the establishment of a working group on financing liveability projects for the Antwerp ring road 23/11/2020 - 31/01/2021

Abstract

Assessment of the existing documents that quantify the expected costs and effects of the liveability projects near the Antwerp Ringroad. Presentation of a structured overview of the information available. Stakeholder analysis to assess the expectation of a possible future working group on financing. Implementation plan of a working group on financing.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Scientific Chair International Francqui Professor 2019-2020 (Prof. Siem Jan Koopman). 01/10/2019 - 30/09/2020

Abstract

Professor Koopman will give the following lectures within the Scientific Chair International Francqui Professor 2019-2020: 1. The Econometrics of Time-Varying Parameters 2. Macroeconomic forecasting 3. Stochastic Volatility Modelling 4. Dynamic Factor Models

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Managing the statistical aspects of the project 'Establishing a decision method for vaccination policy in Flanders'. 01/07/2019 - 30/09/2019

Abstract

In the context of the government contract 'Establishing a decision method for vaccination policy in Flanders' issued by the Flemish Agency for Care and Health, all statistical aspects will be performed of the discrete choice experiment that will be conducted among the Flemish population and among vaccination experts. This includes (1) the design of the experiment, (2) the cleaning of the data sets that are retrieved, (3) the analysis of the resulting data sets, (4) the formulation of conclusions, (5) summarizing and writing down the studies in one or more reports and (6) developing these reports into international publications in renowned journals. For the interpretation of the discrete choice experiment, reference is made to the technical file with specification N° AP/IZ-VAC/2018/2.

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Research team(s)

The effect of Brexit on hate crime and migration in the United Kingdom. 01/04/2019 - 30/03/2020

Abstract

This project will provide causal evidence on the impact of Britain's vote to leave the European Union on changes in hate crime and migration patterns. Using an array of robust econometric techniques, we will consider these changes for the UK as a whole and its regions and investigate whether the effects are temporary or long lasting. Further analysis of other influential factors such as media and social media activity, labour market and socio-economic characteristics of the locality, ethnic and national diversity of the area will complement the main results.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Concerted research program in health economics at Kinshasa School of Public Health. 01/01/2018 - 31/12/2020

Abstract

DRC lacks necessary resources to provide efficient and equitable health services. Reinforcing local capacity is essential to constructively evaluate all health-care financing alternatives, to demonstrate the economic burden of health-related conditions, and to meaningfully determine the value of proposed programs and interventions, appropriate within the Congolese context. To provide efficient and equitable health services for improving the health of the Congolese population, the present project aims to: (1) set-up a concerted research program in health economics (HE) at the Kinshasa School of Public Health (KSPH); (2) strengthen the research capacities in HE at KSPH; and (3) increase the visibility and outreach of research activities and outputs in HE.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Cooperative real options games in environmental economics. 01/10/2016 - 14/09/2020

Abstract

By developing real options models that address uncertainty, advances have been made in ecological economics and resource economics. Recently, the real options theory itself has advanced towards real option games. These models also consider the interaction of economic actors within a competitive or cooperative setting. Because the transition towards resource and energy efficient economies requires the involvement of all economic actors, the theory of real option games form an opportunity to further combine research in environmental economics and dynamic decision making. For different environmental challenges, it will be studied when it is optimal to invest and how cooperation can take place. Also advances in the field of real option games will be made: (1) the sequence of the investments and the direction of the cash flows are not predefined, (2) the interdependence between complementary investments will be studied, and (3) focus is on cooperative strategies. The cooperation with various European research groups, will allow me to improve my competences and to create an own research line that combines research in the field of environmental economics and dynamic optimization. My expertise on the development of real options games will extend the existing economic expertise at the Department of economics at Antwerp University and because these economic models address environmental economic issues, cooperation between different research departments will be strengthened.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

The economics of balancing mechanisms in electricity markets. 01/10/2016 - 30/09/2018

Abstract

This project studies the economics of balancing mechanisms in electricity markets. Besides a technical goal, namely balancing injections and offtakes in real time, the design of these mechanisms has important economic consequences. In the CWE market context where intermittent production technologies are rapidly integrated, it crucially affects investment and production decisions. The well-functioning of the balancing market is essential to ensure system stability and to prevent blackouts. Countries will benefit from more economic insights when they decide to coordinate their policies at this stage.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Ethnic Composition as a Factor Explaining Public Policy in Developing Countries 01/04/2016 - 31/03/2017

Abstract

The aim of this project is to examine whether fractionalisation and partitioning, two measures of ethnic composition, can explain the quality of public policies observed in developing countries. The project re-estimates the findings of the seminal paper by Easterly and Levine (1997), extends the data with observations from the past two decades, and tests robustness to different measures of policy quality.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Research on socioeconomic inequalities in health. 01/10/2015 - 30/09/2016

Abstract

This project represents a research contract awarded by the University of Antwerp. The supervisor provides the Antwerp University research mentioned in the title of the project under the conditions stipulated by the university.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Co-payments and the financial accessibility of medical care: an experimental investigation into the impact of lowering co-payments on patterns of medical consumption and unmet need. 01/10/2015 - 30/09/2016

Abstract

We study the effects of lowering co-payments on medical consumption of low income families. To this end, we exploit a large scale, randomized policy intervention aimed at encouraging take-up of the Beneficiary of Increased Reimbursement Statute. We use administrative health insurance data to measure the budget impact and the effects on specific medical consumption patterns. We perform an additional survey to analyze the effect on subjective unmet need.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

The economics of balancing mechanisms in electricity markets. 01/10/2014 - 30/09/2016

Abstract

This project studies the economics of balancing mechanisms in electricity markets. Besides a technical goal, namely balancing injections and offtakes in real time, the design of these mechanisms has important economic consequences. In the CWE market context where intermittent production technologies are rapidly integrated, it crucially affects investment and production decisions. The well-functioning of the balancing market is essential to ensure system stability and to prevent blackouts. Countries will benefit from more economic insights when they decide to coordinate their policies at this stage.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Financial services, social networks and financial practices: investigation use and impact research. 01/10/2014 - 30/06/2015

Abstract

This project represents a formal research agreement between UA and on the other hand the client. UA provides the client research results mentioned in the title of the project under the conditions as stipulated in this contract.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Economic analysis of environmental policy in the European car market. 01/10/2013 - 31/08/2015

Abstract

In this research project, we will analyze the economic effects of different environmental policies in the EU market. We will build a structural model, which starts from a rich demand system for differentiated products, adds an oligopoly model and introduces dynamics, using insights and techniques from the fields of empirical industrial organization and environmental economics. Based on this structural approach, the project intends to produce at least three papers on the effects of environmental policies in the European car market. In addition, the project aims to exploit the data set further in order to evaluate the effects of various specific policies as natural experiments using treatment effect approaches.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Electricity production with intermittent technologies. 01/02/2013 - 31/12/2013

Abstract

The purpose of this project is twofold. First, we study the relation between production capacities for intermittent and flexible energy sources under different market structures. Second, we analyze the efficiency implications of various government policies for the functioning of the energy market.

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Research team(s)

Decision making and coordination of transport policies at the local level. 01/01/2013 - 31/12/2016

Abstract

The purpose of this project is to study the role of local governments (cities and municipalities) in controlling transport externalities (congestion, pollution, noise, accident risks). The instruments local governments can potentially use may include investing in capacityreduction, imposing local speed limits, tolls, traffic lights, increasing the red phase of traffic lights, road bumps, investing in bypass capacity around the city or municipality, building noise walls, implementing low emission zones, etc.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Applications of competition policy in the sports industry. 01/10/2012 - 30/09/2014

Abstract

The professional sports industry in Europe and the USA conducts several practices which appear to be textbook cases of anti-competitive behavior. Famous examples include sharing gate revenues, geographically splitting up markets and collective sales of TV rights, advertising and merchandise. Still, in many instances antitrust authorities have neglected to outlaw these practices. This research project bundles four contributions that look into some major competition policy issues in the sports industry. First, it examines how a league may use revenue sharing as a device to coordinate talent investments when sports fans are diversified. Second, the project evaluates how the choice of different contest success functions influences the results of previous contributions in the literature. In a third contribution it introduces a model of platform competition among clubs to investigate the effects of jointly selling advertising on sports consumers and advertisers. A final empirical contribution looks into the importance of factors that may impact on the distribution of playing strengths between teams in a league. This has great relevance to antitrust policy, as it is a crucial issue in the discussion around allowing collective sales of TV rights in Europe.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Implications of real options analysis for industrial organization and competition policy. 01/01/2012 - 31/12/2015

Abstract

Until now, policy recommendations and decisions have been based on the Net Present Value (NPV) rule. However, the NPV rule disregards the lost value of flexibility when making decisions with irreversible consequences. Real options theory naturally incorporates these elements. Policy recommendations based on real options theory will, therefore, improve NPV-based policy recommendations. The real options approach will, as a result, have consequences for policymakers' decisions, firms' interests, and consumer welfare. In this project, we will take a real-options approach with respect to the clearing or blocking of mergers, state aid, licensed entry fees, and regulation of vertically integrated firms.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Economic analysis of environmental policy in the European car market. 01/10/2011 - 30/09/2013

Abstract

In this research project, we will analyze the economic effects of different environmental policies in the EU market. We will build a structural model, which starts from a rich demand system for differentiated products, adds an oligopoly model and introduces dynamics, using insights and techniques from the fields of empirical industrial organization and environmental economics. Based on this structural approach, the project intends to produce at least three papers on the effects of environmental policies in the European car market. In addition, the project aims to exploit the data set further in order to evaluate the effects of various specific policies as natural experiments using treatment effect approaches.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Applications of competition policy to the sports industry. 01/10/2010 - 30/09/2012

Abstract

The professional sports industry in Europe and the USA conducts several practices which appear to be textbook cases of anti-competitive behavior. Famous examples include sharing gate revenues, geographically splitting up markets and collective sales of TV rights, advertising and merchandise. Still, in many instances antitrust authorities have neglected to outlaw these practices. This research project bundles four contributions that look into some major competition policy issues in the sports industry. First, it examines how a league may use revenue sharing as a device to coordinate talent investments when sports fans are diversified. Second, the project evaluates how the choice of different contest success functions influences the results of previous contributions in the literature. In a third contribution it introduces a model of platform competition among clubs to investigate the effects of jointly selling advertising on sports consumers and advertisers. A final empirical contribution looks into the importance of factors that may impact on the distribution of playing strengths between teams in a league. This has great relevance to antitrust policy, as it is a crucial issue in the discussion around allowing collective sales of TV rights in Europe.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Er Terug-zijn³ - Re-integration of sub-acute incapacitated workers as an offer within the services of an external service for prevention and protection at work. 01/09/2010 - 31/12/2012

Abstract

This project represents a formal service agreement between UA and on the other hand IDEWE vzw. UA provides IDEWE vzw research results mentioned in the title of the project under the conditions as stipulated in this contract.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Can new-Keynesian DSGE modeling be saved? 01/08/2010 - 31/05/2011

Abstract

The Credit Crunch and the economic crisis that followed has cast doubt on the validity of the ubiquitous new-Keynesian DSGE model favoured by many macroeconomists. The basic assumptions made in these models are too unworldly to be able to yield a realistic picture of an essentially unstable globalised environment. A drastic overhaul imposes itself. A differentiation of types of agents, the introduction of a commercial banking system, the replacement of the rational expectations assumption by a more realistic one, movements in employment also along the extensive margin, the embedding in a 2- or multicountry setting, and the return to the more traditional nonlinear estimation of the structural model are only the most obvious candidates for change. What is needed now is a thorough feasibility study w.r.t. the estimability and solution of these revamped new-Keynesian macroeconomic models.

Researcher(s)

  • Promotor: Meeusen Wim

Research team(s)

Short term capital flows and portfolio investment in the BRIC countries: how to cope with their potential risks? 01/06/2010 - 31/03/2011

Abstract

The majority of the existing studies concerning the determinants of capital flows focus on foreign direct investment, which is considered the most stable component of total capital flows and is generally associated with positive spillovers such as transmission of managerial skills and technology transfer to the recipient countries. On the other side, portfolio and short-term capital flows, while generating positive effects on consumption and investments, are also an important source of vulnerability and instability for the recipient economy. The associated overheating of the economy, large current account deficits, an overvalued currency and the decrease in the domestic interest rate make investments in the host economy less attractive in the eyes of international investors. Therefore, sudden stops and reversals (i.e. outflows) of short term capital inflows are likely to take place because (as opposed to FDI) they do not involve "disinvestment" costs and they can be easily reversed.

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Research team(s)

The Effect of Global Financial and Trade Shocks on Growth of Sub Saharan Africa. 01/10/2009 - 30/09/2013

Abstract

This project aims at investigating the impact of global financial and trade shocks on growth and inequality in Sub Sahara Africa (SSA). We assess the ability of Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium (DSGE) models to explain the impact of shocks on a typical SSA economy, and examine which modifications are required to make the conventional models applicable to SSA. The modified models will be estimated using data from a sample of SSA countries.

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Research team(s)

On the Crossroads of Catholicism, Mathematics and Economics: The Life and Work of the French Jesuit Maurice Potron (1872-1942). 01/11/2008 - 31/01/2009

Abstract

The main purpose is to make a synthesis of documents from family and public archives concerning the French Jesuit mathematician Maurice Potron (1872-1942). The synthesis will serve both for the English edition of Potron's economic papers, currently under preparation by Christian Bidard and Guido Erreygers (Routledge), and for a more deatailed book in French, by Christian Bidard, on the familial, social historical and religious roots of this remarkable work.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Political economy of transport pricing and investment. 01/01/2008 - 31/12/2011

Abstract

Most of the recent transport economics research has been dealing with normative issues (see, among many others, Small and Verhoef (handbook urban economics forthcoming), Arnott, Rave and Schöb (IFOmonograph,2005), De Borger and Proost EE book (2001)). The central question in this literature was: what are the most efficient pricing and investment policies taking into account different market imperfections? These imperfections are not only situated in the transport sector (e.g., the absence of time-differentiated pricing, the case where not all alternatives can be priced correctly, imperfect competition for some transport modes) but also in the rest of the economy (distortive labour taxes, imperfect redistribution instruments, etc.). This normative research has shown that new forms of pricing (road pricing) may generate important efficiency gains if the revenues of these new pricing instruments are used efficiently. In practice, however, one observes rather inefficient pricing and investment policies in many countries. Moreover, new forms of pricing (road pricing, cordon tolls, kilometer charges, ect.) that may clearly be beneficial for society face serious opposition and are only very slowly implemented. In this proposal, we take a positive approach to transport policy, extensively building upon political economy models. The main research question is how we can explain current transport pricing and investment policies that countries and federations implement. This is an area that received relatively little attention. The research question opens a wide field.. We therefore suggest concentrating the attention on a few specific topics in order to progressively build and test theories for their practical relevance.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Explaining defferences in job retention between native and non-native workers after an individual on the job in company training. 01/01/2008 - 31/12/2009

Abstract

The project aims to explain economic and sociologid differences in job retention between native and non-native workers following an individual in company on the job training. It consists of a statistical analysis of a database of characteristics and a two year job history of 9978 unemployed workers after an in company on the job training, complemented with a qualitative pilot study based on interviews.

Researcher(s)

  • Promotor: Nonneman Walter
  • Co-promotor: Okkerse Liesbet
  • Co-promotor: Timmerman Christiane

Research team(s)

The impact of religiosity on intertemporal, social and work preferences. 01/10/2007 - 30/09/2011

Abstract

This project studies the influence of religiosity on specific preferences of key importance in economic behaviour. The hypothesis that religiosity has a significant influence on time preference, social preferences and the preferences for work are tested using survey data and experimental data. More specifically, the focus is on possible differences in effects of religiosity in societies with a Christian and Islamic background.

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Research team(s)

The impact of ethnic neighbourhoods on labour market integration of foreigners. 01/10/2007 - 31/07/2009

Abstract

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Regulation and competition policy. Decision making in merger control: the role of communication. 01/10/2007 - 04/05/2008

Abstract

This research project offers an economic analysis of decision processes regarding mergers. The role of communication between competition authorities and firms is a central part of the study. The following themes will be investigated: 1) the role of communication and information exchange between firms and authorities; 2) the effect of communication on the choice of the welfare standard; 3) the effect of third parties on communication and descision processes.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Policy Study Centre Study and Educational carreer (2007-2011). 01/01/2007 - 31/12/2011

Abstract

This project represents a formal research agreement between UA and on the other hand the Flemish Public Service. UA provides the Flemish Public Service research results mentioned in the title of the project under the conditions as stipulated in this contract.

Researcher(s)

  • Promotor: Coppieters Piet
  • Co-promotor: Nonneman Walter
  • Co-promotor: Rymenans Rita

Research team(s)

Higher Education and Research: Organization, Market Interaction and Overall Impact in the Knowledge-Based Era. 01/01/2007 - 31/12/2011

Abstract

We continue our current work on university personnel management. This work package consists of two themes. The first theme is in the field of labor and personnel economics and considers the relationship between promotions, job assignments and incentives to perform in universities. The second theme is in the field of human resource management and relates to work experience, work stress, and management of professionals in a university context.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Strategic investment under uncertainty: entry and mergers. 01/01/2007 - 31/12/2009

Abstract

The aim is to extend the real options framework with the large body of work in game theory. In this way a much richer description of optimal investment behavior can be obtained. We want to investigate decisions of firms about whether to enter a market or when being an incumbent, how to deter, blockade or accommodate entry. Moreover we focus on merger incentives induced by the desirability to enter new emerging markets. We are interested in effects of uncertainty.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Reciprocity and strategic cooperation in social dilemmas. 01/01/2007 - 31/12/2008

Abstract

A large body of literature has gathered evidence demonstrating that agents often cooperate in social dilemmas. The typical pattern in repeated-game experiments is that cooperation starts well above the standard theoretical prediction and either stays at high levels or slowly declines up until the final rounds when it breaks down. We use laboratory experiments to examine the weight of the two most prominent forces behind this pattern, i.e. reciprocity and reputation formation ('strategic' cooperation).

Researcher(s)

  • Promotor: Suetens Sigrid

Research team(s)

Congestion and the tax treatment of company cars. 01/01/2007 - 31/12/2008

Abstract

The overall prupose of this project is to study the fiscal treatment of company cars within an integrated optimal tax policy towards both the labour and the transport market. The model takes into account the implications of the tax structure for the prevalence of company cars, and it captures the role of company cars for external transport costs (mainly congestion). The project studies both the optimal tax structure and several revenue neutral tax reforms. The obtained theoretical insights are illustrated by means of numerical models applied to the Belgian situation.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Evaluation of the convention locomotoric revalidation financed by the RIZIV. 01/01/2007 - 31/12/2007

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Researcher(s)

  • Promotor: Smet Mike

Research team(s)

Comparison between technical and occupational secondary education concerning the correlation of similar training programs to the labor market. 15/12/2006 - 15/11/2007

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Researcher(s)

  • Promotor: Smet Mike

Research team(s)

Industry-Science Interaction in the Framework of Standardization and Normalization. 15/12/2006 - 15/07/2007

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Evaluation of the effects of the maximum bill on the consumption of health care. 15/10/2006 - 30/06/2008

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Developing a publication on "educational economy" and "economy of migration" and the development of a theoretical contribution on theocracy. 01/10/2006 - 30/09/2007

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High Technology Assessment of drug eluting stents. 01/10/2006 - 31/08/2007

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Social dilemma games of strategic substitutes and complements: experiments and agent-based simulations. 01/10/2006 - 28/02/2007

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Economic Growth, Poverty and Environmental Degradation in Ethiopia. An Analysis of the Effects of Economic Policy by Means of a Village Computable General Equilibrium (VCGE) Model. 01/07/2006 - 31/12/2010

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This project investigates the relationships between economic growth, poverty and environmental degradation in a village economy of northern Ethiopia. A village social accounting matrix (VSAM) and a village computable general equilibrium (VCGE) will be constructed to perform micro-simulations. The analysis will help to identify which strategies are appropriate to move in the direction of sustainable development.

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Port competition and hinterland congestion. 15/06/2006 - 31/12/2008

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The project focuses on the interaction between port competition and hinterland congestion. We first theoretically study the impact of hinterland congestion and local congestion policies on price and quality competition of ports. Next we analyze the effects of congestion and port pricing policies on optimal congestion taxes in the hinterland network. We finally derive results on optimal investment policies that take account of the relation between port competition and hinterland congestion. We illustrate all theoretical results using numerical simulation techniques.

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Research team(s)

The choice of out of hours medical care by young adults with children. A case study among residents in Deurne-Borgerhout. 01/03/2006 - 31/12/2007

Abstract

Little is known about preferences of consumers of out of office hours medical care. Discrete choice analysis allows quantification of these preferences. In Deurne Borgerhout (large city, large proportion of immigrants) we collect data from 300 respondents at consultations of child welfare centres. Data can be used to improve services to the community.

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Competition policy in Europe: theory and applications to transport and sports broadcasting. 01/01/2006 - 31/12/2009

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In this project we use recent insights from the theory of industrial organization to study pricing and regulatory proposals in a number of specific economic sectors, including transport, sports and broadcasting. The emphasis lies on studying the positive effects of various policy proposals (access pricing of infrastructure, capacity competition on transport networks, allocation of television rights of sports games, etc.). Moreover, we also illustrate their welfare or normative properties. The choice of sectors is inspired by their increasing importance and the recent expertise of the promoters of the project.

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Research team(s)

Endogenous coalition creation in research and development : standardization and new market creation. 01/01/2006 - 31/12/2007

Abstract

We intend to answer the following research questions: i) What are the tirm's optimal R&D investment strategies if there is a future possibility of setting up a standard? ii) Does the standardization encourage or discourage R&D and under which conditions? iii) Are the multi-standard market structures possible and stable? iv) Is a large alliance with an inferior technology more efficient than several smaller alliances, some of which possess a superior technology? v) What are the welfare and policy implications of a standardcreation by the innovating firms? The research will proceed in the following way. First, we develop a theory after the process of standardcreation-driven coalition formation in R&D. Secondly, we move to the issue of new market creation with the focus on competition between standards, i.e. competition between different coalitions supporting those standards.

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Prize Research Council 2005. 07/12/2005 - 31/12/2005

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Researcher(s)

  • Promotor: Van Ourti Tom

Research team(s)

Corporatism in macroeconomic policy making. 01/10/2005 - 31/12/2007

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The existing literature on the working of the corporatist modelof macroeconomic policy making is extended in two ways. First, the importance of asymmetric information is analyzed for the bargaining between the parties involved. Secondly, the fiscal policy of the government is also incorporated into the analysis. These improvements of the theory should ultimately lead to a better empirical specification of the examined empirical relations.

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Regulation and competition policy. Decision making in merger control: the role of communication. 01/10/2005 - 30/09/2007

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Drug policy in figures: follow-up study into the actors, public expenditure and target groups. 01/10/2005 - 30/06/2007

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In Belgium, the importance of research into public expenditure is emphasised in the federal policy document on drugs of 2001. To this end, the research "Drug policy in Figures, A study into the actors involved, public expenditure and target groups reached" (hereafter called Drugs in Figures I) was carried out between 2001 and 2003 by order of the then Belgian Federal Services for Scientific, Technical and Cultural Affairs, now the Belgian federal science policy office, under the promotorship of Prof. dr. B. De Ruyver. The present proposal will refine and update the methodology for measuring public expenditures as it was developed in the research Drugs in Figures I, taking into account the recent developments in the field, as well as the recommendations and bottle-necks identified in Drugs in Figures I and the studies recently carried out by (order of) the EMCDDA. The proposal pays more attention to the methodology itself and to the reporting on the methodology. Next to that, the research will perform a new measurement using the refined and updated methodology. In doing so, insight is gained into the evolutions in public expenditure concerning the approach to the drug problem in Belgium, highlighting the influence of the policy options and action points of the 2001 federal policy document on drugs. More specific, the present research intents to trace the existence of a relation between the priorities of the Belgian drug policy and the public expenditure for these priorities. Next to that, it will also be examined if a relation exists between the prioritized target groups of the Belgian drug policy and public expenditure for these target groups

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Research team(s)

Sabbatical: writing a textbook on sports economics. 01/10/2005 - 30/09/2006

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Research team(s)

Inequalities in the health care sector: the role of income and the importance of a conceptual framework. 01/10/2005 - 31/12/2005

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The project consists on three parts: 1) A longitudinal analysis of the correlation between socio-economic status and health: dynamics and causality. 2) Econometric modelling of the determinants of the number of visits to various health care types. 3) A conceptual framework for the measurement of socio-economic inequalities in the health care sector: alternatives and decompositions.

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Research team(s)

Medicine consumption in Belgian homes for the elderly. 01/09/2005 - 31/08/2006

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Researcher(s)

  • Promotor: Smet Mike

Research team(s)

Price and wage rigidities in an open economy. 17/05/2005 - 31/12/2006

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Research team(s)

Impact of supplements on access to medical care. 01/03/2005 - 31/07/2006

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Access to medical care is of primary concern to the government and the public in general. In this study, we will analyze whether the evolution in direct out-of-pocket payments (especially supplements) and private insurance has a negative impact on access. More specifically we will: -do a literature review on the effects of out-of-pocket payments and complementary private insurance; -calculate the amount and type of supplements in Belgium over the period 1996-2003 as well as determine the socio-economic characteristics of the patients generating or paying these supplements(on the basis of the IMA-data); -on the basis of appropriate econometric techniques *estimate the determinants to take out private health insurance *estimate the impact of supplementary private insurance on the probability and duration of hospitalization after correction for behavioral effect of supplements.

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Endogenous entry barriers and competition in banking markets. 01/01/2005 - 31/12/2008

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Removal of legal entry barriers is often considered as an important step to make markets more competitive. Incumbents, however, may have incentives to create institutions that limit entry possibilities in order to create market power. This project will study several institutions that considerably determine the degree of competition in banking markets. In particular, this project contributes to the analysis of information asymmetries between banks (both between entrants and incumbents), switching costs (both informational and transactional), and contracts (short-term vs. long-term).

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Oligopoly models of cooperation in research and development with technological spillovers : a laboratory test of the multimarket hypothesis. 01/01/2005 - 31/12/2007

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We perform laboratory tests of the assumption often made in traditional theoretical R&D models that R&D cooperation does not translate in collusion in the output market.

Researcher(s)

  • Promotor: Suetens Sigrid

Research team(s)

Structural underemployment and job shortage : the paradox of Rhineland labour markets. 01/10/2004 - 31/12/2005

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The aim of the project is to document, explain and simulate the Rhineland labour market paradox. A key feature of the Rhineland model is the existence of a dual labour market. On the one hand there is an official labour market dominated by collective bargaining between social partners and with 'good' but rationed jobs. On the other hand a sizeable shadow economy flourishes. The paradox lies in the coexistence of structural underemployment in the official economy with job shortage in the underground economy.

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01/10/2004 - 15/11/2004

Abstract

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Entry, accomodation and mergers under uncertainty. 01/01/2004 - 31/12/2007

Abstract

As becomes apparent from the standard textbooks in industrial organization (cf. Tirole (1988)), the analysis of the effects of uncertainty within this field is yet underdeveloped. The aim of this project is to fill this 'empty hole'. To do so use will be made of the theory of real options. This is a relatively new concept meant to evaluate capital investment decisions of firms stressing the irreversibility of most investment decisions and the ongoing uncertainty of the economic environment in which these decisions are made. Until now real option theory mainly considers single decision maker problems of firms operating in monopoly or perfect competition markets.

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Research team(s)

Wage flexibility in Europe: a comparative international study of its determinants 01/01/2004 - 30/12/2007

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The principal objective of this project is to further understanding of the changing structure of Euro-area labour markets, through an empirical investigation of the country specific wage curves, using a consistent cross-country microeconomic data set from 1985 to 1998. This is an important policy issue since the success of EMU will depend critically upon the structure and conduits of the constituent national labour markets.

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Research team(s)

Congestion pricing, time allocation and the labour market. 01/01/2004 - 31/12/2006

Abstract

The purpose of this project is to study various different policies to cope with congestion externalities within the framework of formal time allocation models (Becker (1966), DeSerpa (1971), Jara-Diaz (2000)). We first consider optimal congestion pricing in a standard Becker-type time allocation model under two hypotheses: (i) assuming only the commodity input in transport production can be taxed (e.g., via fuel taxes); (ii) assuming the activity 'transport' can directly be taxed (e.g. via road pricing schemers or kilometre taxes). Second, we extend this basic model to reconsider the optimal differential treatment of non-commuting and commuting transport derived in earlier models in the literature. Third, we look at the role of the time dimension in designing appropriate economic policies towards carpooling.

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Measuring trust. 01/10/2003 - 31/12/2005

Abstract

A new game-theoretic approach to the study of interpersonal trust is proposed. The proposal is a variant of the well known Berg et al. (1995) trust game, in which the money multiplier is applied to the stage 2 transfer instead of the stage 1 transfer. As a result, altruism is largely eliminated as a driving force of player 1's decision to transfer money to player 2, and so this transfer is a more natural measure of trust.

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Research team(s)

Capital mobility, financial vulnerability and the Central and East European Countries' transition to the EMU. 01/10/2003 - 31/12/2004

Abstract

This research proposal focuses into the monetary and financial risks for the Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC) after accession to the EU. Indeed it is to be expected that soon after their accession the 8 CEECs will posit their candidature for EMU-membership. In this phase they will be especially vulnerable to capital inflow reversals and to currency crises. Thsis project will study: 1. The vulnerability of CEECs to currency crises. In this section wel stress the potential role of combined current account and government deficits (twin deficits) in increasing the vulnerability of CEECs to currency crises. 2. Capital movements and fiscal consolidation in accession countries. Our research objective is to estimate the sensitivity of fiscal consolidation to capital movements in accession countries.

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Research team(s)

History of Economic Thought in Belgium, 1830-1945. 01/10/2003 - 31/08/2004

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The proposed project is preceded by an exploratory research project funded by the University of Antwerp. The proposed research project will analyse the collected material in order to focus on two main issues : (1) the history of higher education in economics in Belgium, and (2) scientific research in economics with international relevance and will analyse this material in order to clarify the national and international role of Belgian economists and their research. Impact will be measured using citation analysis, recorded interventions at national and interantional meetings and membership (active of otherwise) of scientific organisations.

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Research team(s)

The financial problems of the Belgian sports federations. 01/07/2003 - 31/05/2004

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Research team(s)

The dynamics of income, health and inequality. 01/03/2003 - 31/12/2006

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The policy background to the present proposal concern over equity in the fields of health and health care. This project aims to address the pertinent questions regarding the causal mechanisms underlying the systematic associations between health and income. It will mainly rely on theoretical advances in the health economics literature to guide the empirical analysis and take advantage of the availability panel date to test and estimate these relationships.

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Research team(s)

Bernard Chait and the early development of econometrics in Belgium (1930-1960) 01/03/2003 - 31/12/2005

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Since December 2001 research is started, in collaboration with a Dutch colleague Albert Jolink (Erasmus University Rotterdam), on the almost completely forgotten Antwerp engineer-economist Bernard Chait. The proposed project aims at deepening and rounding off this research, and at publicizing its results to a wider audience.

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Endogenous coalition formation in en European stabilisation policy setting: feasibility and effects. 01/01/2003 - 31/12/2006

Abstract

The research focuses on the derivation of macroeconomic stabilisation policies in the European Monetary Union (EMU) area. The overall objective is to model (in a dynamic context): a) the design of national and common stabilisation macroeconomic policies and b) the effects of the interactions among policymakers (national governments of 'blocs' of governments and the European Central Bank (ECB) in setting these policies. Our project aims to consider the EMU by stressing the role played by: i) asymmetries (in both structural and preference parameters) and ii) the existence of a multi-country context in a dynamic set-up. Asymmetries allow to consider the bargaining power distribution among EMU members in setting a common policy, different asymmetric transmission mechanisms of economic policy among countries, and different economic structures (e.g. small vs. large economies).

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Research team(s)

Competition and regulation: the role for government. 01/01/2003 - 31/12/2004

Abstract

The main objective of this project is to study the position of the government with respect to an optimal industrial organization of an economy. More specifically, we pay attention to the recent international trend of many Western governments moving from an active market player and market distorting regulator towards a more market oriented regulator and watchdog. In particular, the research project investigates the theoretical relationship between ex ante regulation an ex post intervention. Specific sectors will be the subject of this research project. The research methodology follows the New Industrial Economics approach where the analysis happens at the level of the industry with its specific characteristics. The research will in particular have applications for Belgium where the role of government in the organization of the Belgian industry is growing but only slowly compared to a country like The Netherlands of the UK.

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Research team(s)

01/12/2002 - 30/11/2004

Abstract

Researcher(s)

  • Promotor: Meeusen Wim

Research team(s)

The dynamics of income, health and inequality over the life cycle. (EQUITY III) 01/11/2002 - 31/10/2005

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01/10/2002 - 30/09/2004

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Researcher(s)

  • Promotor: Meeusen Wim

Research team(s)

01/02/2002 - 31/12/2003

Abstract

Researcher(s)

  • Promotor: van den Broeck Julien

Research team(s)

Universities and firms: a comparative analysis of the interaction between market processes, organizational strategies and governance. Satellite UA: regulation and management of universities. 01/01/2002 - 31/12/2006

Abstract

The goal of the project is to explore new developments in the theory of organizations and of regulation, and to apply them to the specific case of universities.While the project has a strong microeconomic theory component, it also relies on general management, human resource management and organizational sociology perspectives. The focus is twofold: (1) the government is primarily interested in the use, the design and the effects of various funding formulas and regulatory mechanisms; (2) the university itself has also to design its own policy.

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Essays on coordination failures. 01/01/2002 - 30/09/2006

Abstract

The aim of this project is to examine situations which are characterised by uncertainty, complementarities in actions, and scattered information among agents. Potential applications include initial public offering of stock, currency crises and industrial investment under imperfect competition. In these analyses use will be made of the work of Cooper (1999). Cooper considers key macroeconomic problems (on growth theory, trading costs, synchronisation of activity ...) explicitly as co-ordination games. Doing so he forces economists to rethink classic papers and the role of government. Morris and Shin (2000) present a research path for the future. Specific analyses for the topics from Cooper (1999) could offer very interesting policy descriptions.

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Optimal dynamic R&D investment strategies of competitive enterprises facing technological and market uncertainties. 01/01/2002 - 31/12/2005

Abstract

The objective of this research is to extend the study about the firms' strategic competitive R&D investment subject to technological and market uncertainties. It will contribute to strengthening both the theoretical and empirical knowledge base in this subject. This implies that optimal R&D behavior is determined while taking into account the rivals' behavior, the possibility of coalition creation, and the difference in size among firms, i.e. The dynamic oligopolistic R&D behavior model must be considered. In the empirical part of the research we aim at the following targets: i) analyze firms' individual R&D investment and innovative production strategies using cross-section and panel data for Belgian enterprises

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Research in the field of "New industrial economy and the role of the government". 01/10/2001 - 30/09/2008

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Policy Research Centre: careers of pupils and students in education and transition from education to labour market. Part university of Antwerp in Unit B. 01/10/2001 - 31/12/2006

Abstract

The main objective of this unit is the construction of longitudinal data-sets with regard to the transition from school to work as well as the analysis of and reporting on the results obtained. To this order the unit will design and operate surveys, specifically set up to collect flow data for several birth cohorts at different ages, most notably the special module on the transition from school to work included in the Labour Force Survey.

Researcher(s)

  • Promotor: Coppieters Piet

Research team(s)

Determinants and consequences of migration with special attention or the relation betwaaen illegal migration and organised crime 01/01/2001 - 31/12/2004

Abstract

Migration raises several important social issues. Does worldwide liberalisation of international trade lead to decreasing migratry pressure? What effects has the economic integration of Central and Eastern Europe into the EU on East-West migration? Does migration lead to diminishing employment opportunities or wages for locals? What are the benefits of migration and for whom? How can the social choice for a stop in the migration be explained? What are the costs and benefits of such a policy? How can integration of immigrants be encouraged in a cost-effective way? In this research project a number of questions will be adressed. The goal of the project is to deepen the knowledge of the determinants and the consequences of migration and to strenghen policy making views. The cetral theme of the project is the study of the causes and cosequences of migration in general, but more specifically thedevelopment of a paradigm on the relation betwaan illegal migration and organised crime

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Innovation behaviour, patenting and trademarks subject to knowledge spillovers in 'core' countries of the European Union 01/01/2001 - 31/12/2003

Abstract

The objective is to extend Plasmans et al. (1998) and Lukatch en Plasmans (2000) both theoretically ands empirically. Theoretically, by introducing assymetry of firms and by deriving optimal static and dynamic innovation strategies and R&D related policy measures of national governments. Empirically, by performing five types of analyses: (I) present an overview over time of alle EU firms' patent (trademark) applications and patents (trademakks) granted by major patent and trademark offices (European, Japanese and American); (ii) study 'patent-to-patent citations' and 'patent-to-publication citations' as a possible efficient measure for knowledge spillovers; (iii) & (iv) estimation and testing of dynamic panel data models patent (trademark) appications, patents (trademarks) granted and the corresponding patent (trademark) intensities for 22 sectors in core EU countries (sample period 1989-2000); (v) if there are significant knowledge spillovers, the creation of e.g. a Research Joint Venture (RJV) may actually improve social welfare and be at the same time beneficial to the firms involved; we want to perfor a profound comparativeanalysis on the motives for starting RJV's, Joint Research and Development Agreements, Joint Research Pacts, and Research Corporations on the basis of an updated version of the MERIT-CATI database.

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01/12/2000 - 30/11/2003

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Equity of the different payment sources for health care 01/12/2000 - 31/10/2003

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The project will provide further evidence on the sociale characteristics of the Belgian health care system and contribute to the existing international evidence on three different aspects. 1) Provide factual information about the link between an individual's income and its liability for user charges over time. To which degree has the increase in copayments led to an increased share of medical care in household income over time and what is the impact on poverty? 2) Analyse the current impact of health care payments on households. What individuals are most vulnerable with respect to medical payments? What are the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients having payment problems? 3) Analysis of the (actual) degree of vertical and horizontal equity of the different payment sources for health care in Belgium and international comparison.

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01/01/2000 - 31/12/2003

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