When the diaries of Victor Klemperer, German-Jewish Professor of Romance Philology at the Technical University of Dresden, were first published by Walter Nowojski in 1995 the response was unusually lively at both the national and international level. The enormous interest provoked by the diaries of the German-Jewish professor of Romance literature who survived the Holocaust in Dresden thanks to intermarriage was doubtlessly due to the almost unanimous praise in press reviews and scholarly articles, which described the work as a unique historical document or as one of the most important literary eye-witness accounts of the Nazi-period. Yet, Klemperer might prove to be still more influential. I want to suggest that the Klemperer diaries are quite revealing about Jewish identity in Germany and in Europe in general. In contrast to Goldhagen's one-sided polemic, Klemperer allows in his Third Reich diaries for conflicting readings of popular support for Hitler, the extent of anti-Semitism, and of knowledge of the Holocaust. Hence, it is open to interpretation and thus to multiple forms of political and historical instrumentalization. The Klemperer diaries have indeed been used to shore up manifold—and sometimes contradictory—arguments. Who were ordinary Germans, and what was their relationship to Hitler? How did they interact with Nazi anti-Semitism? How much did they know about the genocide, and when? On these and other questions, Klemperer's day-to-day records create ambiguities, time and again. Multi-faceted and complex, the diaries do not often allow for a single interpretation on the matters they concern most. Since we have so few authentic sources from the period, Klemperer's diaries provide an insight into the everyday life in the Third Reich. Above all, however, Klemperer offers a German-Jewish narrative of national German history. The diaries were born of the will to render transparent, clarify and elucidate what happens but remains indescribable without exempla. To capture the times in thought, to understand their genesis, can only succeed if a multiplicity of individual recollections are collected, as it would otherwise be impossible to show everything and to make it plausible in its entirety; and there would otherwise be no gain in knowledge. This knowledge assumes the existence of a conglomeration of facts and can nonetheless grasp its own time in collected anecdotes. The encyclopaedic, minutely descriptive style of Klemperer is the adequate method. The diaries present a catalogued discursive cross-section of everyday life over a period of five decades of German history. We would like to study the various discursive constellations to be found in the diaries of Victor Klemperer, in order to present a cultural-scientific study of the importance of Klemperer's diaries for a reconstruction of the problematic German-Jewish identity and the 'everyday life' of a German-Jewish scholar in the Third Reich.