The Kagera Health and Development Survey (KHDS) is a study into the long-run wealth dynamics of households and individuals within North West Tanzania. This study entails the resurvey of a panel of households, originally interviewed for 4 rounds from 1991 to 1994. Resurveys were then organised in 2004 and 2010. A multi-topic household questionnaire is administered to all split-off households originating from the baseline households, including those that have moved out of the baseline location. It constitutes, to the best of our knowledge, the longest-running African panel data of this nature.

The first KHDS paper appeared a quarter century ago and since then well over 100 have been written using the data. Some of the topics coverd are HIV/AIDS, orphanhood, prime-aged adult death, migration, urbanization, inheritance, bride price, marriage, family networks, intergenerational persistence of poverty, the long-run impact of HIV/AIDS.

We are attempting to keep track of KHDS-based research papers on this page (see below). If you have completed KHDS-based work, do please e-mail me the output, so that I add it to the list. 

Fieldwork for the project was implemented by EDI, who also maintain a web page on KHDS, which I recommend for additional information and resources (click here and then through to KHDS).


Main Data and Documentation

As KHDS is an official LSMS survey, all data, questionnaires, manuals and forms are hosted on the World Bank website:

The KHDS survey mimics summary measures of some key person and household characteristics quite well. The2004 Basic Information Document presents a comparison with  the CWIQ survey in Kagera and this document presents a comparison with the Household Budget Survey. 


Auxilliary Data

The main KHDS data have been complemented by a number of auxilliary data sets (also hosted on the EDI-website here):

1. NASA weather data: daily data spanning 1981-2010 on all baseline villages on the following variables (from Kalle Hirvonen).

  • Atmospheric Pressure (kPa)
  • Minimum Air Temperature At 2 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (degrees C)
  • Maximum Air Temperature At 2 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (degrees C)
  • Humidity Ratio At 2 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (%)
  • Relative Humidity (%)
  • Dew/Frost Point Temperature (degrees C)
  • Earth Skin Temperature (degrees C)
  • Wind Speed At 10 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (m/s)
  • Precipitation (mm/day)
  • Air Temperature At 2 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (degrees C)


2. NASA weather data: daily data spanning 1981-2010 on migrant destinations on the following variables (from Kalle Hirvonen):

  • Precipitation (mm/day)
  • Air Temperature At 2 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (degrees C)

Download (240 MB)

3. KHDS 2010 distance to borders, border crossings, refugee camps and original location and linked HHs (from Jose Funes and Jean-Francois Maystadt). Download

4. KHDS 2010 matrix of distances between all interviewed HHs in 2010 (from Jose Funes and Jean-Francois Maystadt). Download (80 MB)

5. Price, Consumption and Assets Aggregates (1991-2004). As per 2004 updates. Do not use with 2010 round. Download

6. Price and Consumption Aggregates (1991-2010). As per 2010 updates (preferred for use with 2010 round). Download

7. Rainfall data 1980-2004. Download

8. GPS data 2004: distance to schools, community centers, baseline HH, other HHs in village and distance between villages. Download

9. GPS data 2004: distance of KHDS communities to Rwanda border (from Javier Baez). Download

10. GPS data 2004: distance of KHDS communities to Rwanda, Burundi and Uganda borders (from Monica Fisher). Download

11. GPS data 2004: distance of KHDS communities to refugee camps (from Jean-Francois Maystadt). Download

12. GPS data 2004: elevation data for all markets, schools, community centers and households in KHDS. Download

13. KHDS household GPS coordinates for 1991-94, 2004 and 2010. Download.

14. Wedding and bride price years (from Lucia Corno, Ximena Játiva, Sonya Krutikova, Helene Bie-Lilleør and Alessandra Voena). Download.


KHDS Publications

This page intends to keep track of on-going and completed work using the KHDS data. If you identify any gaps, please send me an e-mail. .

KHDS Publications

  1. Attanasio, Orazio and Sonya Krutikova. 2020. Consumption Insurance in Networks with Asymmetric Information: evidence from Tanzania. Journal of the European Economic Association. https://doi.org/10.1093/jeea/jvaa030
  2. Sara Burrone & Gianna Claudia Giannelli. 2020 Child Labour, Gender and Vulnerable Employment in Adulthood. Evidence for Tanzania, The Journal of Development Studies, DOI: 10.1080/00220388.2020.1755655
  3. Zhimin Li and Ethan Ligon. 2020. Inferring informal risk-sharing regimes: Evidence from rural Tanzania. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 177: 941-955.
  4. De Weerdt, Joachim, Garance Genicot and Alice Mesnard. 2019. Asymmetry of Information within Family Networks. Journal of Human Resources 54(1):225-254.
  5. Christiaensen, Luc, Joachim De Weerdt and Ravi Kanbur. 2019. Decomposing the Contribution of Migration to Poverty Reduction: Methodology and Application to Tanzania. Applied Economics Letters 26(12):978-982.
  6. Kanbur, Ravi, Luc Christiaensen and Joachim De Weerdt. 2019. Where to create jobs to reduce poverty: cities or towns? Journal of Economic Inequality (forthcoming) DOI:10.1007/s10888-019-09419-5.
  7. Pietrelli, R. and Scaramozzino, P. (2019), Internal Migration and Vulnerability to Poverty in Tanzania. Population and Development Review. doi:10.1111/padr.12247
  8. Christiaensen, Luc, Joachim De Weerdt, Bert Ingelaere, and Ravi Kanbur, “Migrants, Towns, Poverty, and Jobs: Insights from Tanzania” in: Ravi Kanbur, Akbar Noman and Joseph E. Stiglitz (eds.)The Quality of Growth in Africa,New York: Columbia University Press, 2019, pp. 398-421.
  9. Maystadt, Jean-Francois an Gilles Duranton. 2018. The Development Push of Refugees: evidence from Tanzania. Journal of Economic Geography (2018):1-36.
  10. Ingelaere Bert, Luc Christiaensen, Joachim De Weerdt and Ravi Kanbur. 2018. Why Secondary Towns Can Be Important for Poverty Reduction – A Migrant Perspective. World Development 105:273-282
  11. Kofol, Chiara and Maryam Naghsh Nejad. 2017. Child Labor and the Arrival of Refugees: Evidence from Tanzania. IZA Discussion paper No. 11242
  12. De Weerdt, Joachim, Kathleen Beegle and Stefan Dercon. “Orphanhood and Self-esteem: an 18-year longitudinal study from an HIV affected area in Tanzania.” 2017. JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 76(3):225–230
  13. Adhvaryu, Achyuta and Anant Nyshadham. 2017. “Health, Enterprise, and Labor Complementarity in the Household.” Journal of Development Economics 126: 91-111.
  14. Christiaensen, Luc, Joachim De Weerdt, and Ravi Kanbur. 2017.“Mchango wa Miji Midogo Katika Kuleta Maendeleo na Kuondoa Umaskini Tanzania.” IGC Policy Brief.
  15. Ruiz, Isabel and Carlos Vargas-Silva. 2017. "The Impact of Hosting Refugees on the Intra-household Allocation of Tasks: A Gender Perspective." UNU-WIDER Working Paper 2017/66. download
  16. Christian, Paul and Brian Dillon. 2017. “Long-Term Consequences of Consumption Seasonality.” Demography (forthcoming).
  17. Martuscelli, Antonio. 2017. “Analysing the Impact of Price Shocks in Rural Economies: Do Household Responses Matter?” The Journal of Development Studies 53(9):1518-1534.
  18. Burrone, Sara, and Gianna Claudia Giannelli. 2016. “Child Labor and Labor Market Outcomes in Tanzania: A Gender Perspective.” download
  19. Adhvaryu, Achyuta, Namrata Kala, and Anant Nyshadham. 2016. “Booms, Busts, and Household Enterprise: Evidence from Coffee Farmers in Tanzania.” download
  20. Kudo, Yuya. 2016. "Why Is Levirate Marriage Eroding in Africa? HIV/AIDS as an Agent of Institutional Change." Mimeo Development Studies Center, Institute of Developing Economies. download
  21. Christiaensen, Luc, Joachim De Weerdt, and Ravi Kanbur. 2016. “Urbanisation and Poverty Reduction.” A position paper prepared for The Planning Commission, President’s Office. download or IOB Analysis and Policy Paper version.
  22. Pantaleo, Innocent. 2016. Poverty Dynamics in Kagera Region 1991-2010. PhD Thesis, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
  23. De Weerdt, Joachim and Kalle Hirvonen. 2016. “Risk Sharing and Internal Migration.” Economic Development and Cultural Change 65(1):63-86. download
  24. Hirvonen, Kalle. 2016. “Temperature Changes, Household Consumption and Internal Migration: Evidence from Rural Tanzania.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 98(4): 1230-1249.
  25. Corno, Lucia and Alessandra Voena. 2016. “Selling Daughters: Age of Marriage, Income Shocks and the Bride Price Tradition.” IFS Working Paper W16/08
  26. Counts, Christopher J. and Jolene Skordis-Worrall. 2016. “Recognizing the importance of chronic disease in driving healthcare expenditure in Tanzania: analysis of panel data from 1991 to 2010.” Health Policy and Planning 31(4): 434-443.
  27. Moradi, Alexander and Kalle Hirvonen. 2016. “The African Enigma: The mystery of tall African adults despite low national incomes revisited.” In J. Komlos & I. R. Kelly (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Economics and Human Biology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  28. Ruiz, Isabel and Carlos Vargas-Silva. 2016. “The Labour Market Consequences of Hosting Refugees.” Journal of Economic Geography 16(3): 667-694.
  29. Dimova, Ralitz, Gil Epstein, and Ira Gang. 2015. Migration, Transfers and Child Labor. Review of Development Economics 19(3):735-747.
  30. Krutikova, Sonya and Helene Bie Lilleør. 2015. “Fetal Origins of Personality: Effects of Early Life Circumstances on Adult Personality Traits. ” Oxford University CSAE Working Paper 2015-03.
  31. Alam, Shamma Adeeb. 2015. “Parental Health Shocks, Child Labor and Educational Outcomes: Evidence from Tanzania.” Journal of Health Economics .
  32. Maaskant, Cornelis.  2015. Risk Sharing within Geographically Spread Extended Families: Evidence from Rural Tanzania. MSc thesis, University of Oxford.
  33. Hirvonen, Kalle and Helene Bie Lilleør.  2015. “Going Back Home:  Internal Return Migration in Rural Tanzania.”  World Development 70: 186-202.
  34. De Weerdt, Joachim and Andreas Kutka.  2015. “Urbanisation and Youth Employment in Tanzania.”  ICAS-VI Improving Statistics for Food Security, Sustainable Agriculture, and Rural Development. Linking statistics with decision making, Pages 576 – 586
  35. Kudo, Yuya. 2015. “Female Migration for Marriage: Implications from the Land Reform in Rural Tanzania.” World Development 65: 41-61
  36. Fujii, Tomoki. 2015. “Poverty Decomposition by Regression: An Application to Tanzania.” UNU-WIDER Working Paper 102.
  37. Gaddis, Isis and Johannes Hoogeveen. 2015. “Primary Education in Mainland Tanzania: What Do the Data Tell Us?” in Joshi and Gaddis (eds.) Preparing the Next Generation in Tanzania. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.
  38. Fichera, Eleonora and David Savage. 2015. “Income and Health in Tanzania. An Instrumental Variable Approach.” World Development 66: 500-515.
  39. Ruiz, Isabel and Carlos Vargas-Silva. 2015. “The Labor Market Impacts of Forced Migration.” The American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings 105(5): 581-586.
  40. Maystadt, Jean-François and Gilles Duranton. 2014. “The Development Push of Refugees: Evidence from Tanzania.” , University of Lancaster Economics Working Paper 19.
  41. Corno, Lucia. 2014. “Learning (or not) in Health Seeking Behavior: Evidence from Rural Tanzania.” Economic Development and Cultural Change
  42. Maystadt, Jean-François and Philip Verwimp. 2014. “Winners and Losers among a Refugee-Hosting Population.” Economic Development and Cultural Change 62(4): 769-809.
  43. Scott, Lucy, Katharina Hanifnia, Andrew Shepherd, Milu Muyanga, and Elsa Valli. 2014. “How Resilient are Escapes out of Poverty?” London: Chronic Poverty Advisory Network, Overseas Development Institute.
  44. Scott, Lucy, Debbie Hillier, and Helen Underhill. 2014. “Investigating Resilience Thresholds in Sub-Saharan Africa.” Chronic Poverty Advisory Network and Oxfam.
  45. Hirvonen, Kalle. 2014. “Measuring Catch-up Growth in Malnourished Populations.” Annals of Human Biology 41(1): 67-75.
  46. Rogers, Martha. 2014. Environment and Development: Essays on the Link Between Household Welfare and the Environment in Developing Countries. PhD thesis, The University of Minnesota. download
  47. Batura, Neha. 2013. The Determinants and Impact of Longterm Child Undernutrition: Evidence from Rural Tanzania. Ph.D. thesis, SOAS, University of London. download
  48. Martuscelli, Antonio. 2013. Supply Response and Market Imperfections: The Implications for Welfare Analysis. DPhil thesis, University of Sussex. download
  49. Gachassin, Marie Castaing. 2013. “Should I Stay or Should I Go? The Role of Roads in Migration Decisions.” Journal of African Economies 22(5): 796-826.
  50. Baende Bofota, Youyou. 2013. “The Impact of Social Capital on Children Educational Outcomes: The Case of Tanzania." IRES Discussion Paper 2013003. download
  51. Peterman, Amber, Shu Wen Ng, Tia Palermo, and I-Heng Emma Lee. 2013. "Managing the Double Burden: Pregnancy and Labor-Intensive Time Use in Rural China, Mexico, and Tanzania." Studies in Family Planning 44(4): 411-430.
  52. McKay, Andy and Emilie Perge. 2013. “How Strong is the Evidence for the Existence of Poverty Traps? A Multi-country Assessment.” Journal of Development Studies 49(7):877-897.
  53. Bengtsson, N. 2013. “Catholics versus Protestants: On the Benefit Incidence of Faith-Based Foreign Aid.” Economic Development and Cultural Change 61(3):479-50.
  54. Christiaensen, Luc, Joachim De Weerdt, and Todo, Y. 2013. “Urbanization and Poverty Reduction – The Role of Rural Diversification and Secondary Towns.” Agricultural Economics 44:447-459.
  55. Pradhananga, Rosina. 2013. Economic Coping Mechanisms In Response To Household Health Shocks In Kagera, Tanzania: 1991-2004. Master of Public Health Thesis, Yale University.
  56. Kudo, Yuya. 2012. “Returns to Migration: The Role of Educational Attainment in Rural Tanzania.” IDE Discussion Paper 322.
  57. Devicienti, Francesco and Mariacristina Rossi. 2012. “Liquidity Constraints, Uncertain Parental Income and Human Capital Accumulation.” Applied Economics Letters 20(9):826-829.
  58. Peterman, Amber. 2012. “Widowhood and Asset Inheritance in Sub-Saharan Africa: Empirical Evidence from 15 Countries.” Development Policy Review 30 (5): 543-571.
  59. Adhvaryu, Achyuta and Anant Nyshadham. 2012. “Schooling, Child Labor, and the Returns to Healthcare in Tanzania.” The Journal of Human Resources 47(2):364-396.
  60. Adhvaryu, Achyuta and Kathleen Beegle. 2012. “The Impacts of Adult Deaths on Older Household Members in Tanzania.” Economic Development and Cultural Change 60(20): 245-277.
  61. Kirchberger, Martina and Fulgence Mishili. 2011. “Agricultural Productivity Growth in Kagera between 1991 and 2004.” IGC Working Paper 11/0897.
  62. Beegle, Kathleen, Joachim De Weerdt, and Stefan Dercon. 2011. “Migration and Economic Mobility in Tanzania: Evidence from a Tracking Survey.” Review of Economics and Statistics 93(3): 1010–1033.
  63. Baez, Javier E. 2011. “Civil Wars Beyond their Borders: The Human Capital and Health Consequences of Hosting Refugees.” Journal of Development Economics 96(2):391-408.
  64. Houngbonon, Georges Viven, Sebastian Guendel Rojas, and Viet-Anh Tran. 2011. “The Importance of Tracking in Long-term Household Panel Survey: Evidence from the Impact of Orphanhood on Human Development in Rural Tanzania.” Econometric Team Work from Paris School of Economics, Master in Public Policies and Development. download
  65. Opuni, Marjorie, Amber Peterman, and David Bishai. 2011. “Inequality in Prime-age Adult Deaths in a High AIDS Mortality Setting: Does the Measure of Economic Status Matter?” Health Economics 20(11): 1298-1311.
  66. Peterman, Amber. 2011. “Women’s Property Rights and Gendered Policies: Implications for Women’s Long-term Welfare in Rural Tanzania.” Journal of Development Studies
  67. Beegle, Kathleen, Joachim De Weerdt and Stefan Dercon. 2011. “Patterns of Migration in Tanzania.” in Larrison, Murrugarra and Sasin (eds.) Migration and Poverty: Towards Better Migration Opportunities For the Poor. Washington DC: The World Bank.
  68. Bengtsson, Niklas. 2010. “How Responsive is Body Weight to Transitory Income Changes? Evidence from Rural Tanzania.” Journal of Development Economics
  69. Maystadt, Jean-François. 2010. Conflict and Forced Migration. PhD thesis, Université Catholique de Louvain. download
  70. Hagen, Jens, Toman Omar Mahmoud, and Natalia Trofimenko. 2010. “Orphanhood and Critical Periods in Children’s Human Capital Formation: Long-Run Evidence from North-Western Tanzania.” Kiel Working Paper 1649. download
  71. De Weerdt, Joachim. 2010. “Moving out of Poverty in Tanzania: Evidence from Kagera.” Journal of Development Studies
  72. Beegle, Kathleen, Joachim De Weerdt and Stefan Dercon. 2010. “Orphanhood and Human Capital Destruction: Is there Persistence into Adulthood?” Demography 47(1): 163-180.
  73. Dimova, Ralitza and Kunal Sen. 2010. “Is household income diversification a means of survival or a means of accumulation? Panel data evidence from Tanzania.” SSRN
  74. Ikegami, Munenobu. 2009. “Agricultural Productivity and Mortality: Evidence from Kagera, Tanzania.” download
  75. Peterman, Amber. 2009. Essays in Maternal Health and Human Rights: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa. Ph.D. thesis, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
  76. Beegle, Kathleen, Joachim De Weerdt, and Stefan Dercon. 2009. “The Intergenerational Impact of the African Orphans Crisis: A Cohort Study from an HIV/AIDS Affected Area.” International Journal of Epidemiology 38(2):561-568.
  77. Troerup, Sara and O. Mertz. 2009. “Linking Climate Trends to Coping Strategies in Northern Tanzania.” IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 6. download
  78. Berger, Sarah. 2008. Understanding Disease Progression in the Kagera Region of Tanzania: A framework for efficient health care delivery. MA thesis, Georgetown Public Policy Institute. download
  79. Litchfield, Julie and Thomas McGregor. 2008. “Poverty in Kagera, Tanzania: Characteristics, Causes and Constraints.” Poverty Research Unit at Sussex Working Paper 42.
  80. Lilleør, Helene Bie. 2008. “Human Capital Diversification Within the Household. Findings from Tanzania.” University of Copenhagen Centre for Applied Microeconometrics Working Paper 2008-04. download
  81. Beegle, Kathleen, Rajeev Dehejia, Roberta Gatti. and Sofya Krutikova. 2008. “The Consequences of Child Labor: Evidence from Longitudinal Data Rural Tanzania.” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 4677.
  82. Alderman, Harold, Johannes Hoogeveen, and Mariacristina Rossi. 2008. “Preschool Nutrition and Subsequent Schooling Attainment: Longitudinal Evidence from Tanzania.” Economic Development and Cultural Change
  83. Dercon, Stefan. 2008. “Fate and Fear: Risk and its Consequences in Africa.” Journal of African Economies 17(2): 97-127.
  84. Lassen, D. and Helene Bie Lilleor. 2008. “Informal Institutions and Intergenerational Contracts: Evidence from Schooling and Remittances in Rural Tanzania.” mimeo, University of Copenhagen. download
  85. Beegle, Kathleen and Sofya Krutikova. 2008. "Adult Mortality and Children’s Transition into Marriage." Demographic Research 19(42): 1551-1574. download
  86. Anselmi, Laura. 2007. Social Learning in Health Behaviour: The Case of Mosquito Bed Nets in Tanzania. Ph.D. thesis, Oxford University. download.
  87. Simonsen, Marianne and Lars Skipper. 2007. “Child Health in a Developing Country: Consequences for Short- and Medium Term Outcomes.” mimeo, University of Arhus and Institute for Local Government Studies. download
  88. Udry, Christopher and Hyungi Woo. 2007. “Households and the Social Organization of Consumption in Southern Ghana.” African Studies Review 50(2): 139-53.
  89. Baez, Javier E. 2007. “Do Local Children Suffer from Foreign Refugees Inflows? Evidence from Host Communities in Northwestern Tanzania.” SSRN.
  90. Beegle, Kathleen, Joachim De Weerdt, and Stefan Dercon. 2007. “Adult Mortality and Economic Growth in the Age of HIV/AIDS.” Economic Development and Cultural Change 56(2): 299-326.
  91. Ksoll, Christopher. 2007. “Family Networks and Orphan Caretaking in Tanzania.” Oxford University 361.
  92. Udry, Christopher and Hyungi Woo. 2007. “Households and the Social Organization of Consumption in Southern Ghana.” African Studies Review 50(2): 139-53.
  93. Roberts, Peter, KC Shyam, and Cordula Rastogi. 2006. “Rural Access Index: A Key Development Indicator.” World Bank Transport Paper 10. download
  94. Beegle, Kathleen, Joachim De Weerdt and Stefan Dercon. 2006. “Orphanhood and the Long-term Impact on Children.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 88(5): 1266-1277.
  95. Beegle, Kathleen, Rajeev Dehejia, and Roberta Gatti. 2006. “Child Labor and Agricultural Shocks.” Journal of Development Economics 81(1): 80-96.
  96. Alderman, Harold, Johannes Hoogeveen and M. Rossi. 2006. “Reducing Child Malnutrition in Tanzania: Combined Effects of Income Growth and Program Interventions.” Economics and Human Biology 4: 1-23.
  97. Sahn, David E. and Stephen D. Younger. 2006. “Testing the Kuznets Curve for Countries and Households Using the Body Mass Index.” Strategies and Analysis for Growth and Access Working Paper September 2006.
  98. Krutikov, Sonya. 2006. “Impact of Child Labour on Educational Attainment in Adulthood: Evidence from Rural Tanzania.” mimeo, Oxford University. download
  99. Seebens, Holger. 2006. “The Contribution of Female non-farm Income to Poverty Reduction.” Paper prepared for the Tanzania Gender and Growth Assessment.
  100. Suliman, Eldaw Abdalla. 2005. Orphanhood, Fostering, and Child Well-being in Tanzania. Ph.D. thesis, The Johns Hopkins University.
  101. Beegle, Kathleen. 2005. “Labor Effects of Adult Mortality in Tanzanian Households.” Economic Development and Cultural Change 53(3): 655-684.
  102. Ainsworth, Martha, Kathleen Beegle, and Godlike Koda. 2005. “The Impact of Adult Mortality and Parental Deaths on Primary Schooling in Northwestern Tanzania.” Journal of Development Studies412 – 439.
  103. Seck, Papa. 2005. “Do Parents Favor their Biological Offspring over Adopted Orphans? Theory and Evidence from Tanzania.” 409.
  104. Burke, Kathleen and Kathleen Beegle. 2004. “Why Children Aren’t Attending School: The Case of Northwestern Tanzania.” Journal of African Economies 13(2): 333-355.
  105. Lundberg, Mattias, Mead Over, and Phare Mujinja. 2003. “Do Savings Predict Death? Precautionary Savings During an Epidemic.” manuscript prepared for , Geneva. download
  106. Ainsworth, Martha and Julia Dayton. 2003. “The Impact of the AIDS Epidemic on the Health of the Elderly in Tanzania.” World Development 31(1): 131-148.
  107. Lundberg, Mattias, Mead Over, and Phare Mujinja. 2003. “Transfers and Household Welfare in Kagera, Tanzania.” Prepared for UNAIDS.
  108. Dayton, Julia and Martha Ainsworth. 2002. “The Elderly and AIDS: Coping Strategies and Health Consequences in Rural Tanzania.” Social Science and Medicine 59: 2161-2172.
  109. Lundberg, Mattias, Mead Over, and Phare Mujinja. 2000. “Sources of Financial Assistance for Households Suffering an Adult Death in Kagera, Tanzania.” South African Journal of Economics 68:5:947-984.
  110. Ainsworth, Martha and Innocent Semali. 2000. “The Impact of Adult Deaths on Child Health in Northwestern Tanzania.” 2266.
  111. Ainsworth, Martha and Innocent Semali. 1998. “Who dies from AIDS? Socioeconomic Correlates of Adult Deaths in Kagera Region, Tanzania” background paper for Ainsworth, Fransen, and Over (eds.) Confronting AIDS: Public Priorities in a Global Epidemic.
  112. Ainsworth, Martha, Deon Filmer and Innocent Semali. 1998. “The Impact of AIDS Mortality on Individual Fertility: Evidence from Tanzania.” in Montgomery and Cohen (eds.) From Death to Birth: Mortality Decline and Reproductive Change. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
  113. Ainsworth, Martha and Mead Over. 1997. Confronting AIDS: Public Priorities in a Global Epidemic. Washington, D.C.: .
  114. Semali, Innocent and Martha Ainsworth. 1995. “A Profile of Traditional Healers in an Area Hard-hit by the AIDS Epidemic: Kagera Region, Tanzania.” download
  115. Ainsworth, Martha, Susmita Ghosh, and Innocent Semali. 1995. “The Impact of Adult Deaths on Household Composition in Kagera Region, Tanzania.”
  116. Ainsworth, Martha and Godlike Koda. 1993. “The Impact of Adult Deaths on School Enrollments and Attendance in Northwestern Tanzania.”
  117. Ainsworth, Martha, Godlike Koda, George Lwihula, Phare Mujinja, Mead Over and Innocent Semali. 1992. “Measuring the Economic Impact of Fatal Adult Illness in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Annotated Household Questionnaire.” World Bank 90. download




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