Research team

Expertise

Maarten Van Acker is an expert in infrastructure and urban planning. He is Professor of Urban Design at the master programs of Architecture and Urbanism and Spatial Planning at the Faculty of Design Sciences at the University of Antwerp. Maarten is spokesperson of the Research Group for Urban Development, director at juxta architecture and vice-chairman of Europan Belgium. He coaches several urban development administrations, urban planning commissions and architectural firms in the realisation of urban development projects, the integration of infrastructure projects and the coordination of international design competitions. Maarten is a member the editorial board of RUIMTE, ONTO and ZuidZee. He received his PhD for his research on the impact of infrastructure design on the urbanization of Belgium since the 19th century. He is the author of several publications such as En de Rest is Parking, Stations as Nodes, From Flux to Frame, Highway x City, In Via Veritas, KempenAtlas, Spoorboek, Groene Singel, Zaaien op Beton, Turnhout 2012, ... In New York, Maarten did his postdoctoral research on urban (infra) structures at The New School for Design.

Complex planning processes: productive, healthy and sustainable neighbourhood development. 27/09/2022 - 30/09/2023

Abstract

This assignment guides the city of Sint-Niklaas in exploring the development potential and associated litigation of the SVK site. The assignment starts by mapping the agendas of the various actors regarding the programming of the site. With the expansion of Stad Sint-Niklaas with the SVK Stadslob, the mobility network for accessing the site will also be reviewed. In this process, we will also make an inventory of international exemplary practices of spatial and cultural appropriation. Finally, we take the step towards implementation and advise on the available planning instruments, as well as the urban development process.

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  • Research Project

Operational CFD Model for impact analysis on spatial interventions to improve urban ventilation. 01/09/2022 - 31/08/2023

Abstract

Within the contemporary debate on liveability in cities, the topic of natural ventilation as mitigating measure is gaining more and more interest. Especially in the field of air quality, natural ventilation has gained a lot of interest as an additional measure to local emission reduction strategies (e.g. transition to electric vehicle fleet and introduction of (ultra) low emission zones) to comply with the stricter air quality guidelines (European standards and World Health Organization (WHO) Air Quality Guidelines (AQGs)). The public awareness and the actions of citizens' initiatives are putting additional pressure on spatial planners and urban policy makers to tackle the problems of air quality and heat. It is generally known that street canyons (streets flanked by facades on both sides) are, due to their morphology, the bottleneck zones for natural ventilation and thus are greatly challenged by increased pollution levels and problems related to urban heat. However, spatial planners and urban policy makers have few useful and reliable tools and knowledge to analyze these street canyons and to develop solutions. This demand from the market was discussed during meetings with Cabinet Advisers (City of Antwerp), spatial policy makers (city of Antwerp, Climate and Environment department), the Flemish Environment Agency (VMM) and design firms (Maat-Ontwerpers, OMGEVING).This project proposal fully addresses this gap in the market by providing validated tools (CFD simulations) for analysis of existing situations and impact-analysis of spatial interventions to support the implementation of spatial measures for the optimization of ventilation in urban environments and to offer this as a product-service to companies and governments. Hereby the recently developed knowledge on this matter (unique within the Flemish field of knowledge) within the multidisciplinary collaboration between the research group Sustainable Energy, Air and Water technology (DuEL) (Faculty of Sciences, UA) and the research group for Urban Development (Faculty of Design Sciences , UA) is used. In addition to this knowledge, a tool was developed (CFD model) for carrying out detailed analyzes of urban areas (focus on street canyons) and calculating spatial interventions that focus on the optimization of local natural ventilation and/or pollutant dispersion. The CFD model differs from current standard models since it has been thoroughly validated (by means of an extensive measurement campaign) and has the possibility to calculate the impact of adjustments to building configurations (in contrast to the usual models for Flemish governments such as AtmoStreet, IMPACT and CAR that only can calculate the impact of adjustments to emissions/traffic flows). For this project proposal, an IOF-POC Develop is requested to further develop the CFD model in co-creation with the City of Antwerp and/or VMM and thus make it ready for market-introduction on a technical level. Furthermore, commercial steps are being taken (further market and competition screening, detailed valuation of the service and analysis of real costs, such as personnel, but also technical matters such as measurement equipment and computing power) to substantiate the development of the Service Platform (substantiation of follow-up application IOF Service Platform in 2023) with potential to grow into a spin-off company. Finally, a number of alternative valorisation routes were identified, such as registration for European framework programs (Interreg, Life, Horizone Europe), cooperation agreements with public companies for large-scale projects (e.g. Lantis) and cooperation agreements regarding the setting up of the screening tool by the Flemish Environment Agency (VMM).

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  • Research Project

Implementation of innovative finance for nature based solutions in Flemish cities (INNOFINS) 01/10/2021 - 30/09/2025

Abstract

Flemish cities are expected to take a leading role in climate adaptation and mitigation strategies. At the core of these strategies are nature based solutions (NBS) by green, blue and hybrid urban infrastructures. NBS address multiple problems related to climate change in an integrated, sustainable way. Although investments in NBS infrastructures are considered a cost effective way to achieve future societal and environmental benefits, current public budgets in Flanders are insufficient. As a result, the gap between investments in and societal need for NBS is growing. In contrast to limited public budgets, there is an abundance of private capital seeking for investments. Yet, the potential to invest private capital in NBS is not fully exploited. NBS projects typically have sizeable upfront costs and diffuse and long-term societal benefits that are not easily captured in steady cash flows, making privately financed schemes often inappropriate. In order to attract private investments to NBS, new business models and alternative financing mechanisms are needed. In this project, we study the utilisation potential of innovative financing models in the Flemish context by developing real life business cases of NBS, using new instruments such as impact financing, value capturing and ICO-crowd funding. In order to develop a realistic and holistic interdisciplinary approach, this strategic research will study how new financial instruments impact planning and design, governance arrangements, valuation methods, legal institutions and instruments as well as social justice. The urban living lab approach will ensure continuous integrated assessment of the spatial, juridical, institutional, economic feasibility and social impact of the new financing business models, optimising the utilisation potential for the societal users.

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  • Research Project

Visualising 'material spatial dimension of waste flows' in the province of Antwerp (ATLANTES). 01/06/2021 - 31/05/2023

Abstract

Flanders and the Province of Antwerp aim to reduce the footprint of raw material consumption by 30% towards 2030, focusing more on circular economy (CE). This project aims to support the CE approach by developing an online platform that visualizes the waste flows from and to the province of Antwerp. After all, thanks to the analysis of waste flows, governments and public institutions can maximize the impact of their policy choices and the results achieved in this CE transition. In addition, it enables companies to trace their waste materials at a provincial level, but also to develop new production processes in which they also reuse their waste materials.

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  • Research Project

Healthy corridors as drivers of social housing neighbourhoods for the co-creation of social, environmental and marketable NBS (URBiNAT). 01/06/2018 - 30/11/2023

Abstract

URBiNAT focuses on the regeneration and integration of deprived social housing urban developments through an innovative and inclusive catalogue of Nature-Based Solutions (NBS) ensuring sustainability and mobilising driving forces for social cohesion. Interventions will be focused on the public space to co-create with citizens new urban, social and nature-based relations within and between different neighbourhoods. Taking the complete physical, mental and social well-being of the citizens as its main goal, URBiNAT will develop the co-creation of healthy corridor as an innovative and flexible NBS, which itself integrates a large number of micro NBS emerging from community-driven design processes, in order to boost environmental, economic and social sustainability and cohesion. URBiNAT consists of a worldwide consortium of academic and business partners around 7 European cities that will act as living laboratories (WP2) to implement healthy corridor solutions in well identified social housing neighbourhoods. These laboratories will also assess the corridor's ecological, cultural, social and economic impacts. From west to east, the cities of Porto, Nantes and Sofia will act as frontrunners based on their demonstrated experience in the innovative use of public space with NBS. From south to north, the cities of Siena, Nova Gorica, Brussels and Høje-Taastrup will share and replicate URBiNAT concepts and methodologies, acting as 'followers' (Figure 1). Each city will be supported by local partners, associations and research centres, as well as by 'horizontal' centres, universities and companies which link between cities. These actors will together create a living lab (WP2), deliver a multichannel strategy for active citizenship (WP3), implement a healthy corridor and an NBS catalogue (WP4), while monitoring impacts (WP5), disseminating knowledge (WP6) and marketing solutions (WP7) as results. Together, they will form an inclusive community of practice (CoP) in collaboration with non-European partners, including in China and Iran, as well as with NBS observers based in Brazil, Japan, Oman and a Chinese city, bringing experiences and an international dimension to the project. HEALTHY CORRIDORS (HC), with a customized NBS catalogue, will be co-created and co-planned for the frontrunner and follower cities, testing an innovative and inclusive urban model to regenerate deprived districts, specifically within and linking social housing neighbourhoods. Participative-design will be the cornerstone approach in achieving new models of urban development, and design thinking process and methods will underpin the creation of Healthy Corridors with NBS. In this sense, URBiNAT sets three major goals responding to three levels of action: 1) at the local level, to promote social cohesion through the activation of living lab and engagement of a Community of Practice [WP2 and 3]; 2) at a transversal level, to achieve new models of urban regeneration through an innovative public space: healthy corridors concept and the NBS catalogue [WP4]; 3) widespread, with the monitoring, dissemination and market replication of the knowledge produced and demonstrated [WP5, 6 and 7]. Finally, URBiNAT will develop business cases based on market potential, as well as policy recommendations regarding best-practice NBS, that provide information about the benefits and costs of NBS. This will include social, environmental and economic impacts, as well as the comparison of different NBS business propositions and alternative solutions. Through the development of solid business cases co-created with the engagement of local communities, URBiNAT will ensure long-term sustainability. Business cases will also include business products for the social and solidarity economy, free-of-charge solutions, and economic growth opportunities for new NBS.

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  • Research Project

Expert reflection 3D - spatial efficiency/public space. 31/03/2022 - 30/06/2022

Abstract

The policy study '3D environmental planning' aims to map the impact of these 3D environmental challenges on the environment and thus realise a shift in environmental planning towards a 3D planning that takes into account all flows, layers, volumes and relationships at all possible levels that comprise the physical living environment, thereby gaining a better understanding of the complex dynamics of our living environment. During the first phase of the policy exploration, a conceptual framework is worked out, for which the support of experts is requested in the form of an expert reflection. The expert is responsible for a concise reflection on the possible future impact of one or more 3D challenges on the living environment. In a second step, this reflection is used in a workshop as a basis for a SWOT analysis in order to estimate its possible significance for the living environment and environmental planning.

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  • Research Project

A plan for healthy urban development in the Merode region (HEALTHY CORE) 01/10/2019 - 30/09/2021

Abstract

More and more the importance of a healthy living environment is coming to the fore. With this project we want to contribute to the knowledge about healthy strengthening of residential areas in peri-urban regions. By involving local care providers in the planning process, we are looking for a way to make better use of the area through the care sector, on the one hand, and to increase the natural capital in the centers in relation to their health. The project results in guidelines for designers and planners for healthy urban design. In addition, the project is considered to be a learning process towards interdisciplinary cooperation between spatial planning and the care and health sector at the level of policy, research and practice.

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  • Research Project

AirTech'byDesign: Injecting Technology into Urban Design in the battle against Street Canyon Pollution. 01/10/2018 - 30/09/2022

Abstract

The poor air quality in our cities is currently at the centre of public debates on health living conditions and at the pinnacle of innovative urban planning and mobility policies. Especially, so-called 'street canyons' represent the most problematic arteries of our cities: these are narrow inner-city roads that are flanked on both sides by a continuous row of (high) buildings. In these street canyons, the air quality is often below the European standards and those of the World Health Organization. Both urban design and technological solutions, such as photocatalyst, have proven to be a powerful tools for improving the air quality and overall health. However, this research is often restricted to a single domain, sector or discipline (either bioengineering or urban design) and is often limited to the analysis of the impact of a single parameter on air quality. Secondly, the most well-known measures focus on the reduction of emissions of pollutants and are situated on a larger scale planning and policy level. At the local scale level of traffic intensive locations and the so-called street canyons, systematic research on the possible contribution of urban design and technological interventions to improve the air quality is lacking. Moreover, a group of pollutants under less public scrutiny, volatile organic carbon (VOC), are less susceptible to traffic regulations. The treatment of paving, walls and facades with a photocatalyst have proven to contribute to improve the air quality. However, in street canyons the airflow rates are often low for an optimal performance of these photocatalysts. Alterations of the urban design (that improve the air circulation and the integration of UV lightning) can seek VOC abatement in urban street canyons with minimized environmental burden. In conclusion, in terms of air quality on the level of street canyons, there exists a fundamental disciplinary schism between environmental and urban design sciences. Dealing with the spatial distribution of air pollution and high threshold to bridge technological innovation with urban planning, this research project aims to combine environmental and design sciences. Therefore, the Research group for Urban Development (Design Sciences), DuEL and BioGEM (Engineering Sciences) decided to team up to tackle together this pregnant challenge. The scientific challenge grasped in this project is threefold: (1) Understand the spatial and molecular distribution of VOC in urban environment, with focus on street canyons, (2) Maximize the effect of urban design changes to improve the health effects of street canyons by incorporating photocatalytic abatement technologies; (3) Formulate design guidelines for improvement of air quality in street canyons based on LCA metrics, and extrapolate the methodology to future technological improvements. Together these challenges constitute an opportunity to significantly lower the threshold for future developments to improve the health conditions in street canyons. Divided over four Work Packages and four years, this multidisciplinary approach of this challenge calls for a combination of methodologies, ranging from literature review, to research by design, over modelling and case study research. The Turnhoutsebaan in Antwerp is selected as case study, being representative for typical Flemish street canyons in terms of structural characteristics (length, height over width ratio), traffic density, demonstrated high air pollution levels and the availability (or lack) of green infrastructure.

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  • Research Project

Casco -1. Re-use of underground urban parking spaces 16/03/2018 - 28/02/2019

Abstract

Mobility and real estate experts are predicting a sharply reduced parking demand in our inner cities for the coming decades. Cities are committed to a more sustainable modal shift: more space for public transport, cyclists and pedestrians. An increase of shared mobility (including the self-driving car in the long term) would also significantly reduce parking needs in our cities. A revision of the oversized car infrastructure in city centers is also advocated from climate adaptation and health considerations, and is being used as a priority policy objective in an increasing number of cities. The international paradigm of cities on a human scale seems to go hand in hand with the revision of the location of the car in the city. Raf Ilsbroekx and Maarten Van Acker explored the possibilities of redeveloping underground city parks, using international case studies and design research. The exhibition CASCO -1 shows the results of the study that was awarded a BWMSTR label in 2018. The label inspired the start-up of new doctoral studies on the re-use of infrastructure and the (re) design of underground spaces.

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  • Research Project

Analysis of (international) examples of infrastructure projects related to urban development. 01/01/2018 - 30/03/2018

Abstract

In the context of the exploration of the complex project Noordzuidverbinding Limburg, 'comparable' best practices of infrastructure design are being studied with similar problems and scope (eg. new road infrastructure in a more or less urbanized environment), which was fully or at least partially realized.

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  • Research Project

Green-blue networks in Flanders 19/10/2017 - 18/10/2019

Abstract

The aim of the assignment is firstly to define, on the basis of sound scientific argumentation from literature, a definition of the concept of green-blue networks supported by all partners, based on the objectives of biodiversity, climate and quality of life. Based on this definition, the existing green-blue network and the potential for expansion and qualitative reinforcement will be mapped and visualised. The final part of the assignment consists of research by design, in which the elaboration of concrete cases, aims to put the theory into practice.

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  • Research Project

Consultancy in management of similar architecture and urban planning. 10/10/2017 - 31/12/2017

Abstract

The curating of the design competition was part of the regional program Envies the Loire, initiated by the Urban Planning Agency of the City of Tours. The competition was launched with the aim of obtaining development scenarios and proposals that will place the Loire back at the heart of Metropolitan life. This research developed insights, which revealed the possibilities of a synthesis between the desires of the local inhabitants with the UNESCO's criteria for inscribing the Val de Loire on the World Heritage List. The research found ways of re-appropriating this territory, found new uses for the land, created qualified public spaces that take account of contemporary issues (climate change, sustainable mobility, digital transition, tourism, resilience and so on).

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  • Research Project

Re-design of historical sites in view of future societal challenges and policy-wise priorities of local governments 01/05/2017 - 31/12/2017

Abstract

The Ursulinen Institute in Sint-Katelijne-Waver, the colony in Wortel-Merksplas and the Fortress in Mortsel are public historical heritage sites that have (partly) lost their function over the years. As such, a new destination and function has to be found that takes into account (i) new societal challenges and associated (strategic) policy priorities of local governments, and (ii) the conservation and protection of the historical value . To find such a new destination, the method of research by design can be used. Thus, looking for different design alternatives results in new insights and thus inspirational input for the respective re-design initiaitives. Because of their methodological expertise, researchers of the University of Antwerp (faculty of design sciences, Henry van de Velde research group) will assist Kempens Landschap (public owner off these sites) in search of a suited re-destination of these sites.

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  • Research Project

Urban Design Commission 01/01/2017 - 31/12/2017

Abstract

As team of experts in urban development supports the city of Ostend fortnightly to assess and coach large scale construction projects. This way the city of Ostend can develop in a consistent yet innovative way. The City Atelier not only play a role in 'housing projects, but also develops by 2017 a Global Strategic Development plan on how the city should look like in the long term.

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  • Research Project

Bicycle Oriented Development (BOD) A spatial tool for improving the bikeability of urban corridors. 01/07/2016 - 31/12/2017

Abstract

This research aims to provide insight into the factors that determine the 'bikeability' of our cities and indicate how we can improve the cycling conditions and the physical environment of the cyclist. In a first phase, the research aims to outline a fundamental method to define the spatial factors that determine the routes of cyclists (safety, comfort, obstacles, amenities,...). The existing literature is questioned and supplemented by a case study research along three bicylce corridors in the city of Antwerp. Supported by the Institute of Transport of the TUDelft (prof. Kees Maat), the routes of cyclists are identified and queried via GIS software and bike riders equiped with data applications. The results are combined with spatial cartographic research and supplemented by interviews with key stakeholders (cyclists, selection of local residents, city of Antwerp, Antwerp province, AWV). In the second phase of the investigation, formulated on the basis of parameters defining bikeability, research by design visualizes spatial interventions that can improve the bikeability along these corridors. With stakeholders, a co-creation process is started, in which the draft design proposals are discussed and improved during joint design sessions. The findings of this iterative design research on three different case studies (Turnhoutsebaan, Mechelsesteenweg and Singel cycle track) are distilled into design guidelines that can fundamentally improve the bikeability of cities.

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  • Research Project

Making an ATLAS for the Campine region. 01/04/2016 - 31/12/2017

Abstract

The Campine is a region in constant transition. Throughout history all kinds of large-scale ambitions and dreams were projected on the sandy heathland. Often tabula rasa, with all its consequences. Today ambitious projections are again unleashed on the region. To avoid the mistake of historical tabula rasa, AR-TUR starts together with the University of Antwerp a project that maps the identity of Kempen. The project aims to provide a basic resource - in the form of an atlas - that the maps qualities of the area clear so that future projects can anchor and are inspired by this document. Maarten Van Acker is the editor of the atlas. The cartographic expertise is contracted to the Dutch architecture firm MUST. The photography is provided by Filip Dujardin. The Atlas is published in Public Space.

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  • Research Project

Consultancy and elaboration of the General Strategic Development Plan of the City of Ostend 01/03/2016 - 31/12/2016

Abstract

This project represents a formal research agreement between UA and on the other hand the client. UA provides the client research results mentioned in the title of the project under the conditions as stipulated in this contract.

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  • Research Project

Alternative design-blueprints for "Kasteeldomein Zellaer (Bonheiden)", "Kasteelhoeve (Grobbendonk)", "Molendomein Beddermolen (Tongerlo-Westerlo), "Rangeerstation (Essen)" and "Domein Hof ter Laken" 01/02/2016 - 31/12/2016

Abstract

This research project is focused on the elaboration of alternative design-blueprints or scenarios for a set of open landscapes with a significant historical value, located in the Province of Antwerp. By means of these scenarios, the organization "Kempens Landschap" wants to safeguard the public use and utility of these landscapes. Each scenario consists of different visualizations or 3D-images generated by research-by-design (i.e. methodology), that will inspire the eventually chosen (re)design of the landscapes, as well as the negotiations with potential (network)partners.

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  • Research Project

Development strategy for a network of liveable villages. 01/01/2016 - 31/12/2017

Abstract

Villages currently face challenges such as aging, decreasing services and amenities, poor quality housing, limited public transport, erosion of social cohesion .... Due to these developments, the quality of life in villages is highly pressurized. However, a good living environment remains important for coexistence and the "well being" of its residents. This research provides a practical framework for village development, in order to improve the quality of life, illustrating different solutions and their consequences. A practical framework will be developed for different policy areas (housing, care, services, labor, agriculture) with a correlating set of indicators and a development tool box.

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  • Research Project

Small infrastructures, big impact. Research on international best practices passages. Register 2. 01/01/2016 - 30/11/2016

Abstract

As cities continue to grow, their inhabitants now have to travel long distances, for different reasons and to a variety of destinations, using an ever wider range of transport methods, involving a range of speeds, modes and resources. Moreover, while mobilities are becoming more complex, existing transport networks have often been designed in isolation from each other.This research focusses on the passage as a shortcut, a transitional space, a special route, as a crucial urban tool in facilitating access to the city's different amenities and mobilities.

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  • Research Project

Consultancy regarding urban development and the elaboration of a spatial vision on general urban revitalisation for the City of Ostend 01/09/2015 - 31/12/2015

Abstract

Research on the implementation of the general urban and architectural development framework, including the development and implementation of a vision for urban renewal in all its aspects for the city of Ostend; preparing the content of the Global Strategic Development Plan (GSO) and a detailed schedule and the associated costs make up for the implementation of the GSO. Also give guidance to project-specific implementation plans and quality supervision is part of this project, in parallel with the drafting of the vision document; as well as the new infill projects starting from the WoonplanBis; additional architectural and town-planning advice to the strategic projects of the city.

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  • Research Project

Storm in the City. What can architecture, urban planning, and more specifically the Flemish cities learn from New York's approach? 01/07/2015 - 31/12/2016

Abstract

Maarten Van Acker was given the chance in 2011-2012 to teach and perform research at Parsons-The New School for Design in New York, thanks to a grant from the Belgian American Educational Foundation. Commissioned by the journal RUIMTE, Maarten wrote a series of essays on the interface between life and urban design in New York. Within this project, Maarten aims to elaborate the articles into an international publication with GPRC label.

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  • Research Project

The representation of the Presidency of the Spilliaert Commission. 01/01/2015 - 30/09/2018

Abstract

This project represents a formal research agreement between UA and on the other hand the client. UA provides the client research results mentioned in the title of the project under the conditions as stipulated in this contract.

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The design of durable, inclusive public interiors from an urban and interior perspective 01/10/2014 - 30/09/2018

Abstract

"Urban public space is one of the hallmarks of the city, of city life, and urban culture. For these reasons hybrid forms of public space, the so called second public space, are interesting insofar they don't pose a subversion of the first public space." (Borret, beleidsnota 2006-2011, p.39) The former Antwerp City Architect, Kristiaan Borret, draws attention to the qualities of 'second' public space, such as arcades, passages, inner courtyards and public interior spaces. At the same time, he is hesitant about the desirability of 'second' public spaces, because they may damage the quality of the so called 'first' public space: the actual streets, parks and squares. This critical attitude towards new types of public space is apparent in the narratives of profound loss (Sorkin 1992; Koolhaas 2002; De Cauter 2004). On the other hand, 'second' public spaces may serve as a meeting place for groups who do otherwise not find their own place in the main streets and squares. Manual de Solá Morales (1992) was probably the first to stress the importance of these new forms of public space as stimulators of everyday life in the contemporary European city. Ali Mandanipour argues that in the European city with its expansive population and increasing social and cultural complexity, the creation of inclusive public interiors may offer a solution for the threatening social fragmentation (2010). However, the design of qualitative public interiors should be durable through time. So far, especially the 'first' public space was at the center of substantial research (Meyer, a.o. 2009; Van Gassen 2003) in the scholarly field of urban design and urbanism. Also different types of specific public interiors, such as shopping malls (Crawford 1992, Bittencourt, 2013) have been investigated thoroughly in the field of architecture and interior design. However an interdisciplinary approach on the subject of public interiors is lacking. This study aims to bridge the disciplinary boundaries and to search for a communal framework to design public interiors in a more holistic way. The research question is as follows: How can we design durable, qualitative public interiors or 'second' public spaces, which form an integrated part of a network with the 'first' public space? In order to design such spaces, we will develop design principles that are based on theories of public space and urban development, as well as theories of interior architecture, and are tested in case studies.

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  • Research Project

IVM International programme "Passages, transitional spaces for the 21st-century city". 01/12/2013 - 31/12/2015

Abstract

This project represents a formal research agreement between UA and on the other hand the client. UA provides the client research results mentioned in the title of the project under the conditions as stipulated in this contract.

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Responding to demographic challenges: capacity issues, amenities, sensible management (of claims) on scarce space in the context of a growing city. 01/10/2013 - 31/12/2013

Abstract

This project represents a formal research agreement between UA and on the other hand KVS. UA provides KVS research results mentioned in the title of the project under the conditions as stipulated in this contract.

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  • Research Project