Blanca Del Espino Hidalgo (IAPH Andalusian Institute of Historical Heritage) and Réka Horeczki (ELKH Centre for Economic and Regional Studies Institute for Regional Studies)
Cultural Heritage-based Development, Territorial Inequality, Rural-urban Population Movements
The growing dynamism of cities, which attract more and more people in search of employment opportunities and prosperity, has often been the source of deep inequalities. These, however, are not limited to differences between neighborhoods or peripheral and central areas but extend to the territorial scale. Thus, urban-rural population movements have been particularly strong in Europe since the mid-20th century and continue today. This phenomenon has led to great fragility in -both physically and mentally- remote areas which, generally due to the fact they are located far from the dynamics of the big cities, often suffer from problems of population aging, poverty, abandonment, ruin, or even desertification. These areas are mainly rural, although in other cases they are structured by small towns or medium-sized cities. Their sustainability constitutes one of the main challenges occidental societies are facing today, which has been compounded by the physical isolation effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.
The session incorporates research papers that address, from an innovative perspective, the intervention, management, and communication of the dispersed heritage existing in rural, remote, or peripheral areas of Europe. These territories, although threatened by depopulation and vulnerability, nevertheless possess a valuable historical and cultural legacy, as well as numerous heritage assets of a very diverse nature. For this reason, the aim is to analyse how to promote their local and regional development based on their endogenous heritage resources by a group of international, trans-generational, and interdisciplinary researchers.
The contributions include works on very diverse aspects and typologies of cultural heritage: influence of land-use planning and heritage protection instruments, territorial cooperation, heritage routes, minor or emerging cultural heritage (agrarian, intangible, vernacular), social and cultural resilience, identity and links with the territory, or evaluation of socio-economic development due to cultural heritage. Priority is given to the study of innovative strategies based on working with the aspects of heritage that are closest to the local population, avoiding the commodification of heritage resources destined exclusively for cultural tourism, as well as the introduction of new technologies (cultural humanities) that facilitate connectivity, accessibility, and knowledge of the territory and heritage.
Urban-territorial Bases for the Heritage Assessment of Depopulated Rural Areas. Guidelines for Resilient Development of Sierra de Huelva (Andalusia - Spain)
Daniel Navas-Carillo (University of Seville), Juan-Andrés Rodríguez-Lora (University of Seville) and Ana Costa (Mértola’s Archaeological Field)
Demographic Challenge, Heritage System, Urban and Regional Planning
This paper proposes an urban-territorial perspective to heritage assess the rural region of Sierra de Huelva (Andalusia - Spain). Like so many others, this territory is facing population loss due to rural-urban migration processes. In order to identify some of the underlying causes of these territorial dynamics, the research firstly aims to compare the analysis of population evolution in recent decades with the urban-territorial guidelines set out in the urban planning of each settlement and the regional planning common to all of them.
As the central research hypothesis, this work proposes understanding the heritage system of this region as a structuring basis for the future territorial development of this area, which comprises multiple heritage realities, municipalities with diverse historical and heritage relevance. Furthermore, this system comprises the cultural and natural assets classed respectively by the different cultural and environmental administration levels and the additional assets identified by urban planning. The approach to the heritage legacy of this region from a territorial perspective will allow progress to integrate and, especially, define more efficient management and governance mechanisms for municipalities of this size. Therefore, this work requires the alignment of diverse interests and heterogeneous sectors of competence.
Besides, divergent municipal approaches, especially considering heritage preservation, presuppose very different tutelary actions that depend on each planning instrument's scope, especially on its date and current validity. In this sense, the evolution, breadth and leap in scale experienced by the concept of heritage in recent decades are additional factors to consider for a critical analysis of urban planning as a heritage protection instrument.
Consequently, this research proposes to identify some of the keys to the enhancement and future development of this rural area in the field of heritage preservation and urban and regional planning.
The Transformation of Cultural Heritage Content during Urbanisation
Réka Horeczki (ELKH Centre for Economic and Regional Studies Institute for Regional Studies)
Cultural Heritage, Small Town, Urbanization
Hungary's urban development shows a special/unique picture: after the Second World War 52 settlements had urban status, a number that has now grown to 348. Nowadays are increased sevenfold of the number of urban settlements. The current state of Hungarian towns raises give several questions:
- is the rate of development acceptable,
- is the current state of development due to purely socio-economic factors,
- what are the heritage elements (material or immaterial) that villages have preserved in their age of small town,
- what are the cultural heritage elements that they lost when they became towns?
45% of the Hungarian towns are not considered to be towns on the basis of functional criteria (neither their population size, nor their population dynamics, nor their economic-cultural functions justify their urban status). The research examines the Hungarian small towns in the transition period, i.e. what cultural values they had at the time of their urbanisation, which ones they preserved and which ones they forgot. The study will explore and present the built heritage and other local historical and folk values (clothing, small- and handcrafts, gastronomy, etc.) that are preserved in memory. The change in the image of some of the small towns has resulted in the emergence of large villages with a town hall in the main square instead of a village hall. Some of them have lost their image, with the new architectural and design manuals demolishing or transforming iconic buildings and interiors that defined the villages in the area. In a few cases, there are positive examples of small towns that have 'risen to the challenge', preserving their cultural heritage and integrating it into the urban landscape.
Registering the Territory for the Safeguarding of Rural Heritage: Three Instruments for Approaching Agrarian, Defensive and Anthropological Heritage
José-Manuel Aladro-Prieto (University of Seville), Marta García-Casasola (University of Seville) and Beatriz Castellano-Bravo (Instituto Andaluz del Patrimonio Histórico)
Heritage, Territory, Values
The protection of heritage in the Andalusian context has evolved from its initial consideration to be reformulated in accordance with the spirit of the new times. The linear processes of knowledge for the development of heritage methodologies have given way to simultaneous processes, circular we might say, in which there are no working phases. In this context, the administrations must also respond to the requirements of participation as a mechanism that guarantees consensus with the citizens: governance, sustainable protection, management of change, are some of the terms that are beginning to acquire prominence at this time to account for the social turn to which heritage is being subjected. These terms reflect the evolution of heritage from object to subject.
From this new perspective, it is proposed to review some of the instruments that in the first two decades of the century have been formulated fundamentally for the registration and documentation of heritage in the territory, objects that are mostly dispersed in rural areas. These instruments should at the same time serve to advance in the necessary planning of the processes of protection, always from an integral and transdisciplinary viewpoint. Among these, in the Andalusian community, the experiences carried out by the competent administrations to develop the “Inventory of Cortijos, Haciendas and Lagares. Architecture of the large farms in Andalusia”, the “Andalusian Plan for Defensive Architecture” and the “Atlas of Intangible Heritage” are particularly interesting. Three heritage registers that act from different perspectives, which have revealed values associated with the agrarian, defensive and intangible aspects that can be useful for characterising a vulnerable territory.
In a rural context subject to unbalanced processes, the review of the results of these registers can contribute to generating new spatial readings capable, not only of activating the protection of heritage resources, but also, at the same time, of developing mechanisms for enhancement, intervention, management and communication. Transversal and interdisciplinary synergies that converge in the processes of recovery and local development of the rural environment.
Culture Heritage-based Community Initiatives in Central European Peripheries: Case of Vysočina, Šariš and Podlasie
Jan Krajíček (Department of World History, Faculty of Arts, Charles University in Prague (CUNI))
Local Communities, Regional Identity, Central Europe
Depopulation as a trend of demography negatively affecting wider socio-economic development was observed in most of Central European rural regions in recent decades, mainly in those affected by the processes of the “Post-Socialist Transformation”. Czech, Slovak and Polish peripheral regions have already a variety of negative socio-economic characteristics in common, when compared to the central areas of the states. This paper is aimed on the rural cultural heritage seen through the optics of members of local communities – those who are facing the effects of depopulation and further trends of “peripheralization” in their everyday life. In the comparative perspective of Vysočina, Šariš and Podlasie regions, which are perceived as underdeveloped rural peripheries of Czechia, Slovakia and Poland, the paper will show how local initiatives, groups, NGOs and even active individuals approach and use the regional cultural heritage in their activities aimed to strengthen and foster the local identity of Central European peripheries. Since those distant rural regions have “very little to offer” in terms of other economic and social indicators (low production, fewer resources and goods, low level of technological infrastructure and networks, aging population, lack of high-qualified citizens, etc.), their strategies of development and promotion are usually very well-based on the deliberate use of natural and cultural heritage; typically the image of “virgin preserved nature” with quality of agricultural production on the one hand and the touristification of the unique natural and historical localities, sites and places on the other hand. How do the community activities reflect the local cultural heritage? To what extent is the heritage important in these? Who are the actors of such bottom-up initiatives in rural areas? Are their heritage-based activities aimed more outside or inside the communities? In general, the paper seeks the answer on how is the heritage of rural areas helping the local communities to survive.
Peripheries and “Glocalities”: some Trends for a Global History of the Luso-Spanish Borderlands in Europe and South America
Pedro Albuquerque (Uniarq Universtiy of Lisbon, Chair for Global Studies (UAb), U. Seville) and Francisco-José García-Fernández (University of Seville)
Border Identities, Human Landscape, Global History of Borderlands
As the oldest stable frontier in Europe, the Luso-Spanish border is a human landscape with identities shared by Portugal and Spain. The current conditions of these territories inside the Schengen free circulation Area are the key factor for a multidisciplinary analysis of the activation and enhancement of heritage in peripherical territories, particularly in the Lower Guadiana Basin. This heritage is an important factor in the socioeconomic and cultural development of borderland communities, constituting a source of sustainability and resilience through the implementation of cultural routes or networks.
Global History emerges in this context as an alternative view on the tangible and intangible heritage of the borderlands. The analysis of a restricted territory paves the way for further research on other regions along the Portugal-Spain and Brazil-Uruguay borders from the point of view of global studies. From this perspective, a border is a consequence of political circumstances, but also the centre of social networks, interdependencies and cultural transfers that transcend territorial limits. This uniqueness is also revealed in lifeways, which highlight the role of borderlands as historical precursors of strategies of cooperation, interconnections, and confluences. We propose a characterization of these exchanges from an international and transnational perspective, by focusing on the comparison and connectivity between case studies that share common historical circumstances.
The sharing of knowledge and scientific cooperation appears, in this context, as an activity that will enrich the enhancement of cultural assets in both sides of the Atlantic. At the same time, it highlights the integration of the Guadiana into commercial networks since the Iron Age and its role as a dynamizing agent of settlement and interactions. This approach aims to break with the traditional depiction of these territories as uncommunicated places, by providing a holistic view on heritage focused on Archaeology, History, Anthropology, and Historical Linguistics. The evaluation and analysis of the historical value of these landscapes is then a stepping stone for improving sustainable local development, cultural routes and networks, as well as research oriented toward protection, preservation, and dissemination of heritage assets.
Cultural Routes and Connected Sustainable Heritage in Rural Areas. The Great Trail of Málaga (Spain)
Lourdes Royo Naranjo (University of Seville. Higher Technical School of Architecture)
Trail, Cultural Heritage, Rural Areas
The Great Trail of Malaga is a pioneer route in Andalusia (Spain) that incorporates the territorial and environmental variety of an entire province, integrating it into a single route that stimulates interest in its natural spaces and promotes visits to Malaga's municipalities. The total route of the Great Path is 650 kilometers and is distributed among the 9 regions that make up the province. It is a meeting point between the environment, sports, tourism, promoting the integrated development of the province of Malaga from the perspective of a sustainable approach.
The project that is at the center of its actions at the moment is the complementary Senda Litoral, considered a first-rate tourist product that supports the territory of the Costa del Sol, which has been made with the philosophy of taking advantage of natural resources while protecting the environment and offering the resident and the tourist a new experience.
The Great Málaga Trail is also a Great Route (GR-249) that links the existing trails in the province and joins the Mozarabic Way of Santiago, forming part of the national and European network of trails and connecting us, among others, with the Great European Route (GR – 92 E-12), which crosses the Mediterranean arc ending in Greece. The 35 stages and 5 Variants trace for 850 kilometers a route that the other Trails complement and increase, so that it becomes the backbone ring that unites them.
This Malaga trail is a journey through the cultures of the province of Malaga through knowledge of its historical heritage and traditions and is a claim for inland tourism thanks to a very rich cultural and natural heritage, thereby promoting the inclusion of tools of sustainable development and activation of dynamics in areas with less tourist pressure.
Once upon a Time, a Village wanted to be like a Town
Marta Marçal Gonçalves (University of Algarve), Stefan Rosendahl (Independent researcher), María Teresa Pérez Cano (University of Seville)
Inequality, Rurality, Urbanity
This paper intends to show that the issue of inequality between urbanity and rurality. Being an issue that has existed for a long time, does not prevent some villages from fighting and having struggled to reduce these differences. The example presented here is that of a village in the interior of Portugal, Cernache do Bonjardim, where, at the end of the 19th century, beginning of the 20th, people lived a cosmopolitan and almost intellectually comparable existence to that of the Portuguese capital.
The objectives of this work are achieved through the history of this village in the defined period of time, demonstrating, in comparison with other similar villages, that Cernache was able to greatly reduce the differences it had compared with a city.
Bibliographic, photographic and iconographic research, interaction with residents and field survey allowed us to obtain information that supports our hypothesis.
During the investigation, the uniqueness of this village was proved, namely in the important role in terms of intellectual, cultural and economic development that it played throughout the region and, indirectly, in the country.
The main limitation for the development of this investigation was the fire in the Sertã City Hall building, a municipality to which Cernache do Bonjardim belongs, in 1917, which led to the loss of a lot of information that existed there. The scarce bibliography about this village, the parish and the municipality are another limitation that, although slowly, fades away as new works appear.
It is hoped that with this work the people of Cernache will be even more proud of their history and heritage and that this example from their past can be an inspiration for the future and minimize the immense current differences between rural villages in rural areas and towns, but at the same time, without losing their exiting quality of life.
The object of study is original, as there are not many works about it and the perspective of approach we propose on this topic related to Cernache do Bonjardim is also original.
Cultural Heritage-based Local Development for the Resilience of Rural, Remote, and Disperse areas. The Case of Mértola (Portugal) as a Project in the Territory
Blanca Del Espino Hidalgo (IAPH Andalusian Institute of Historical Heritage), Susana Gómez Martínez (Universidade de Évora, CEAACP, Campo Arqueológico de Mértola) and Miguel Reimão Costa (Universidade do Algarve, CEAACP, Campo Arqueológico de Mértola)
Local Development, Territorial Heritage, Rural Heritage
Cultural heritage is currently considered as a fundamental pillar of the urban-territorial development within areas owning a valuable historical legacy. Thus, the recent bloom of cultural tourism favoured the proliferation of research on the way this process contributes to social, economic and cultural levels of these heritage sites’ inhabitants. They have traditionally been focused on main monumental cities and, more recently, on historic medium-sized cities.
This work aims to analyse this effect into a rural area that holds a heritage extended to the whole polynuclear territory, particularly far away from the big poles of tourism and urban dynamism: the village of Mértola (Portugal) and the disperse settlements into its municipality. In this sense, the Mértola Vila Museu project has been implementing, for four decades, a local development model based on tutelary action, research, training and the management of its cultural heritage, extended not only to the main settlement, but also to the whole municipal territory.
By combining the case study, the own experience of the local actors, the territorial cartography and the statistics data management, this work will question how the enhancement and diffusion of certain heritage elements can activate, throughout professional development and sustainable cultural tourism, resilient processes in remote heritage destinations.
Additionally, we will assess the affinity of the project to the current guidelines on sustainability, as well as the consideration of the concept of resilience adapted to the territory and culture, what calls into question the viability of the permanence of the social, cultural, economic and environmental fabric of this municipality in the future.