In Greece, the cultural presence of the mandolin – as a musical instrument expressing local musical traditions – dates back to the late 19th century. It is linked to four different musical traditions (the Smyrnean songs, the Athenian song, the Heptanisian serenade, and the Cretan music, dances) originating in four different regions: Asia Minor, Athens, the Ionian Islands, and Crete. The music differs from tradition to tradition and evolves continuously over the years. Moreover, it is characterized by an impressive diversity of rhythms, harmonies, scales, and melodies – due to the creative assimilation of both Oriental and Western European influences. The mandolin's repertoire in the musical tradition of Athens has been rich and varied, including works by international composers such as Verdi, Donizetti, Puccini, von Suppé, Bach, Glück, and Gounod, and works of Greek composers such as Samaras, Rodiou, Chatziapostolou, Dromazou, Karreri, and others. In addition, it includes works by further Italian composers, excerpts from Greek and international operas and operettas, and arrangements of symphonic works. Cretan music undoubtedly belongs to the family of the tropical musical traditions of the Eastern Mediterranean and has also remarkable common elements with other traditions of the wider region such as Arabic, Turkish and, of course, traditions of different regions of Greece. The mandolin music in Crete has been identified with Cretan dances. Contemporary Cretan dances are especially energetic, fast and characterized as warlike and aggressive. The most interesting aspect of Cretan dances is that they are performed without a score and each dance is defined by specific motifs that are being developed in an improvisational manner during the performance. The purposes of this project are to explore, document and record the repertoire, as well as the playing techniques that have arisen in the musical traditions of Crete and Athens; to develop and document a specific performance practice method for these two traditions; to enrich the mandolin's repertoire by bringing unknown repertoire and performing techniques to light; to improve improvisation skills of classical musicians; to inspire new composers to use the already existing instrumental techniques that have been spread orally through the four traditions, and create new contemporary music for mandolin. The fieldwork will provide an overview of the repertoire and an accompanying range of insights about unknown playing techniques and pedagogical processes that are severely lacking at the moment.