Ongoing projects

Translation and interpreting in the global, digital age: Designing quality standards in audio description 01/10/2020 - 30/09/2025

Abstract

While audio description (AD) becomes one of the most widely researched AVT modalities, AD quality does not seem to have attracted the interest of many researchers so far. This stands in stark contrast to research on other modalities, especially subtitling and live subtitling, where quality is a pivotal issue and has been driving the sharp increase of audience reception studies in AVT (e.g., Di Giovanni & Gambier, 2018). AD quality is not merely an underrepresented topic in university research, but also a cogent problem in industry. The overreaching aim of the project is to create clear evaluation procedures of AD, based on first extensive and long-term analysis of AD quality. To do that we will attempt to define AD quality and map the relationship between AD scripting process and AD quality. While the project aims at introducing new themes in AD research (quality, AD process research) it also proposes employing research methodology that so far has been rarely used in AD research (keystroke logging, heart rate recording, presence questionnaires, interview, focus group, think aloud protocols, screen and face recording).

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Academic literacy in German as a foreign language: A corpus-based contrastive analysis of cohesion in written learner language. 01/10/2020 - 30/09/2024

Abstract

This research project investigates how advanced learners of German as a foreign language (L2) establish cohesion in their academic L2 writing. To enable effective and reader-oriented written communication in academic and professional settings, language learners must develop the ability to create cohesion, which is a crucial component of advanced communicative competence. This means that L2 learners must learn to use grammatical and lexical devices appropriately to signal the logical structure of a text to readers, connecting words into sentences, paragraphs, ideas and texts. Since the use of cohesive devices is highly language-dependent, cohesion is an important aspect of the language acquisition process, transcending traditional grammar–vocabulary distinctions. Given the importance of cohesion in high-quality writing, it is surprising that the cohesive devices deployed by language learners have received little attention in second language acquisition (SLA) research to date. While there is a growing body of research into cohesion in translation studies, which has led to theoretical insights into how languages differ in terms of cohesion, SLA research into cohesion has been limited to a handful of studies in advanced L2 English writing. SLA research into other languages – including German – has until now largely neglected cohesion as an important aspect of language acquisition. A similar lack of attention to cohesion has also been witnessed in L2 pedagogy, where cohesion is often neglected (e.g., in learning materials). As a result, L2 writers often make non-nativelike choices with respect to cohesion, even at advanced stages of language proficiency. Our project sets out to fill the two gaps above by proposing a comprehensive analysis of cohesion in academic L2 German writing, more specifically, summary writing. Our aim is threefold: (1) analyse similarities and differences in the use of cohesive devices by native (L1) and non-native (L2) writers in German; (2) investigate specific characteristics of cohesion in learners with L1 Dutch. To this aim, we will compile, annotate and publish a corpus of texts written by advanced Dutch-speaking L2 learners of German and (3) suggest fruitful applications of our theoretical findings to L2 pedagogy. We will adopt repeated contrastive corpus-based analysis, which is a new method consisting, in our project, of the comparison of three purposefully selected comparable corpora: (1) an existing corpus of summaries produced by L1 writers of German, (2) an existing corpus of summaries produced by L2 writers of German with different L1 backgrounds and (3) our newly created corpus of summaries produced by L2 writers of German with L1 Dutch. In so doing, we contribute to the growing body of learner corpora, which are gaining momentum in SLA research. In addition, we advance the theoretical knowledge of learner language by identifying L1-specific and L1-independent characteristics of cohesion in academic learner language, using novel methods and proposing evidence-based innovation in advanced L2 pedagogy.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Towards a greater accessibility of audiovisual media: exploring machine translation for audio description from English into Dutch. 01/05/2020 - 30/04/2024

Abstract

A key concern within Translation Studies is the profound impact of technological developments on the dynamic human-machine interactions. In this respect, the introduction of neural machine translation systems has had a profound influence on the study and practice of translation. The role of technology is particularly outspoken in the area of focus of the present project, namely Audio Description (AD). AD is an access service that translates images into words, which are inserted in between the music, sound and dialogue of the original audiovisual source text so that audiences who (cannot) see, still have access to the text's content. Despite technology being key in AD research and practice, machine translation for audio description has not been studied yet. Due to recent EU legislation, however, Flemish audiovisual content providers will have to drastically increase the amount of AD that they provide. The translation of existing English descriptions of foreign films and series into Dutch with the use of machine translation systems is an obvious avenue to be explored to meet these new legislative demands. However, limited preliminary research suggests that current machine translation systems do not generate an acceptable quality level for AD, because these systems have not been developed to meet the specific exigencies of this text type. ADs pose domain-specific translation challenges. It is a multimodal and intersemiotic type of translation and constitutes a unique transfer of information between semiotically distinct modes of communication; a fact that has not been taken into account in current research and a fact that poses methodological challenges given the lack of translation studies frameworks to study technology for multimodal text types such as AD. Against this background, the current project aims to explore machine-assisted translation for AD and the exigencies of audio description versus the possibilities of technology and human input, following three research objectives: • Applied objective: to explore the effectiveness and efficiency of machine translation for audio description into Dutch. • Strategic objective: to explore what innovative optimizations could improve the quality level of machine translation for audio description. • Fundamental objective: contribute to the discussion about the interdisciplinary and methodological challenges related to the study of technology and its interaction with humans in Translation Studies more generally, and for multimodal texts specifically. The project is a mixed-methods study, combining human-centered approaches and automatic evaluation methods with product as well as process-oriented research. It includes the human and machine evaluation of a corpus of translated audio descriptions, as well as an experiment with professional audio describers. This will allow us to gather data about the types of errors in the machine translation output, the number of errors made, the number and types of corrections made by professional describers and the time spent on correcting machine translation output. The text analysis and experiment will be supported by a thorough, interdisciplinary literature study, setting our findings off against current insights in literature and against the newest developments in machine translation research. The project constitutes a first step to gather fundamental knowledge regarding the study of technology for multimodal text types and strategic knowledge to start developing machine translation for audio description more systematically.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Subtitles for access to education: Exploring the impact of intralingual and interlingual subtitling of L2 English university lectures on cognitive load and comprehension. 01/10/2019 - 30/09/2023

Abstract

This research project focuses on the subtitling of lectures taught in L2 English, more specifically on how subtitling influences student comprehension of lectures and on what mental effort that subtitling requires from students. This topic is inspired by one of the greatest challenges in higher education in the 21st century: providing educational access to an increasingly multilingual and multicultural student population. To face this challenge, many European universities are considering the possibility of using English as the language of instruction. Yet, a serious drawback to the use of English is many students' limited proficiency in English as a foreign language (L2 English). Subtitling might help to overcome the language barriers posed by L2 English, since it has shown to facilitate comprehension and knowledge acquisition. However, there are currently several knowledge gaps regarding the effects of subtitles on the processing and comprehension of lectures taught in L2 English. We will address the four most relevant knowledge gaps here. First, the potential benefits of subtitles have been studied mainly in the context of foreign language training, with very little research into benefits of using subtitling in other learning contexts. Second, very few studies on the processing of subtitles have measured to what extent subtitles are actually read, which is vital to understanding how subtitled lectures are processed. Third, it is crucial to know - for learning purposes - to what extent subtitles influence the mental effort (i.e., cognitive load) it takes to process subtitling. However, very few studies have measured the cognitive load that subtitling imposes on learners. Fourth, the effects of subtitled English lectures have been examined in students with a high command of English and who have had English as their main language of instruction in primary and secondary education. However, the effects on other types of students remain unknown. In this research project, we aim to address these four knowledge gaps in a controlled setting by conducting an experimental study among Flemish undergraduate students with different levels of proficiency in English. All students will watch three lectures taught in English: one lecture without subtitling, one lecture with English subtitles (intralingual subtitling) and one lecture with Dutch subtitles (interlingual subtitling). Students' eye-movements will be registered using eyetracking. As part of the experiment, the students will fill out post hoc comprehension tests and questionnaires about the cognitive load they experienced. We will conduct statistical analyses to explore if student comprehension and cognitive load of English lectures are influenced by subtitling (present vs. not present), subtitle language (English vs. Dutch) and the students' level of English proficiency (intermediate vs. advanced).

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

The effects of corpus-focused instruction on sociolinguistic competence: A mixed-methods study into stylistic translation revision competence in English. 01/10/2019 - 30/09/2022

Abstract

This project focuses on the stylistic revision of Dutch–English translations. It investigates the effects of corpus-focused instruction (CFI) on stylistic translation revision competence. The use of corpora for translation revision has gained momentum in the last two decades. However, it remains unclear which corpora provide the best fit for the needs of translation trainees. Because error correction cannot take place without error detection, a crucial initial role in the process of stylistic translation revision is ascribed to receptive sensitivity to errors in translation revision tasks. However, detection of stylistic errors is difficult since it generally implies making choices between existing language variants with different degrees of formality. Language learners – including translation trainees – are often unaware that such choices must be made and if they are aware of such choices, they often find them extremely difficult. Consequently, an important question is how we can optimally develop receptive sensitivity to linguistic formality in translation settings to facilitate more accurate and informed style-related decisions during the translation revision process. This project addresses that question by investigating (1) how the form of explicit CFI affects translation trainees' ability to detect and correct formality-related problems in translation revision tasks and (2) which form of CFI triggers the highest success rate for detecting and correcting formality-related problems. The main variable in our experiment is corpus-focused instruction (prepared vs do-it-yourself corpora). Using these two types of corpora, we will investigate whether translation trainees' abundant contact with informal English affects their perception of linguistic formality and their ability to construct and/or use corpora. The results of this intervention will contribute to an informed best practice for translation revision pedagogy by defining a suggested degree of stylistic variation in corpora used for this purpose. Furthermore, the findings have theoretical significance for the fields of instructed second language acquisition, corpus-based translation studies and communication accommodation theory.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Live subtitling for access to education: a pilot study of university students' reception of intralingual live subtitles. 01/07/2019 - 31/12/2020

Abstract

In the United Nations' Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, accessibility to education is mentioned as one of the areas where access has to be ensured. At the University of Antwerp, accessibility services are offered to individual students with a functional impairment; however, the offer does not include the use of new technologies yet, which hold a real potential for breaking down linguistic, physical as well as cultural barriers for a large and diverse student body. One such innovative technology is live subtitling, which can make lectures in large lecture rooms more accessible to all students who attend the class: not only deaf and hard of hearing students, but also students whose mother tongue is not the language of the lecture. The aim of this study is therefore to initiate research into the reception of intralingual live subtitles in an educational setting in Flanders, and in particular, to focus on the reception of intralingual live subtitles by first-year students attending a theoretical lecture in Dutch in a large lecture room. As far as the methodology is concerned, we will opt for a mixed-methods approach: an experiment and focus group discussions. The experiment will consist of two lectures in Translation Studies in Dutch, with and without intralingual live subtitles, attended by 150-200 1st-year students in Applied Linguistics. Student reception of the subtitles (perception and performance) will be investigated through an online questionnaire. Two focus group discussions will allow for the collection of additional qualitative data over perception.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

CoReAD - Cognitive Research in AD - Towards a model determining cognitive load in audio described audio(-visual) products. 01/07/2019 - 31/12/2020

Abstract

Inclusion and accessibility are higher on Europe's political and social agenda than ever before, and this has led broadcasters, film houses but also theatres and museums to start developing services to give people with disabilities access to their products and events. For blind and partially sighted people, audio description (AD) has been created, a service that describes visual and unclear sound elements for the visually impaired, so that they too know what is happening on screen or on stage. Within the academic discipline of translation studies, this evolution has given rise to the emergence of a new field of research, namely media accessibility. As far as audio description is concerned, research was initially focused on the question what should I to describe, and how should I describe (and present) it. One issue that has received much less attention so far is the effect that these audio descriptions have on the target audience, especially in terms of the cognitive load they induce. CoRe AD wants to lay a solid foundation for cognitive research within media accessibility/audio description. Its primary aim is to investigate which (auditory) features in an audio described film or television programme contribute to the cognitive load imposed on the target audience. In a second phase, the project aims to create a model that researchers and audio describers can use to analyze what cognitive load specific audio descriptions induce and that hands them a tool to reduce/optimize that cognitive load. Finally, the usefulness of the model will be tested in a small-scale pilot study.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Promoting access to justice for speakers of indigenous languages in Peru. 01/01/2019 - 31/12/2020

Abstract

The project aims to contribute to the promotion of access to justice for speakers of indigenous languages in Peru. During the two-year project 1) a local network will be set up in Peru, consisting of academic and societal stakeholders in the field of defense of linguistic and indigenous rights regarding the access to justice. The network will be embedded in an international North/South/South triangulation linking Peru, Mexico and Belgium/Europe with the objective to 2) exchange and transfer experience from Mexico and Belgium/Europe in the field of training of interpreters and defense of linguistic rights in multilingual contexts that will be adapted to the Peruvian situation. The setting up of the network and transfer of North/South/South expertise will be achieved through a four semester planning of visits, meetings and workshops in Peru, Mexico and Belgium. The project will lay the basis for the future implementation of a diploma on legal interpreting for speakers of indigenous languages in Peru.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

The collaboration between Giuseppe Ungaretti and Jean Lescure. A process of collaborative creation. 01/01/2018 - 31/12/2021

Abstract

Between 1952 and 1954, Giuseppe Ungaretti (1888-1970), famous Italian poet, known for his obscure and enigmatic poetry and Jean Lescure (1912-2005), a young French writer, philosopher and poet, exchanged a series of letters in order to compose a poetic anthology named "The Five Books". This anthology corresponds to the French translation of poems previously published by Ungaretti in Italian. The Jean Lescure Fund of the IMEC in Caen keeps a large quantity of manuscripts containing the preliminary texts of the translations written by Lescure and corrected by Ungaretti. Relying on theoretical and methodological approaches developed in the field of Genetic Criticism and Translation Studies, the research investigates the collaborative process of poetic creation and the respective roles of both authors, both at the level of the interpretation and of the composition of the text.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Past projects

Consultancy and online workshop on subtitling. 14/09/2020 - 30/09/2020

Abstract

What will you learn in this workshop? This practical workshop will focus on learning and practicing the basics of subtitling, from a foreign language (practice material will be in English and French) to Dutch. Specifically, the workshop will focus on translating subtitles on the basis of a template, with a focus on feature films on the one hand (in preparation for the LUX Prize) and informative films on the other hand. Who are the trainers? The OPEN Expertise Centre for Accessible Media and Culture will provide practical and administrative support for the workshop. The workshop will be given by Nina Reviers, and Sabien Hanoulle, with the cooperation of Gert Vercauteren. Who is the workshop for? This workshop is aimed specifically at the translation team within the Directorate of Citizen's language, which focuses on subtitling. It concerns both the principal subtitlers within this service and translators from the translation service who assist them in their assignments.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Sabbatical 2018-2019 Prof. Christiane Stallaert. 01/10/2018 - 30/09/2019

Abstract

My research as a hispanist and anthropologist focuses on social and political themes (nationalism, interethnic and interreligious society, migration, human rights, historical memory), and its interrelations. The cultural border is central to my work, which is inter- and transdisciplinary, at the intersection of Anthropology, Translation Studies and History. Geographically, my research domain is in Spain and Latin America (Mexico, Brazil, Andean region). The three research axes are: 1. Translation Mediated Representation of the Holocaust / Nazism in Transatlantic Settings 2. Indigenous Spaces in Europe / Latin America from a Decolonial and Human Rights Perspective 3. Ethnicity, nationalism, transmodernity During sabbatical leave these three research axes will be further explored on the basis of ethnographic fieldwork, archive research and literature study in the light of a renewed conceptual interpretation framework with regard to transatlantic cultural transfers, decoloniality, transmodernity. The research results will be processed in book form, with the provisional working title: 'Transmodern Europe. Towards a micro-anthropology of Globalization '.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Stylistic appropriateness in English as a foreign language: The acquisition of grammatical formality by translation trainees. 01/07/2018 - 31/12/2019

Abstract

An important component of communicative competence is sociolinguistic competence, which is the ability to use language appropriately in communication. Despite an increasing body of research into sociolinguistic features of foreign language (L2) learning, a feature that has received relatively little and/or one-sided treatment to date is the acquisition of sensitivity to (in)formal language use in L2 learners. This project addresses that gap by investigating sensitivity to grammatical formality in L2 learners of English. By using both quantitative and qualitative data, we will map – cross-sectionally and longitudinally – the acquisition of sensitivity to grammatical formality.Quantitative data from an online revision task and qualitative data from semi-structured interviews will be integrated to acquire a more nuanced understanding of how sensitivity to grammatical formality is acquired in L2 learners of English. The results will contribute to a better understanding of how sociolinguistic competence develops in L2 learners and to facilitating sociolinguistically responsive foreign language instruction.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Expert sensitivity to linguistic formality as a benchmark for measuring stylistic translation revision competence. 01/04/2018 - 31/03/2019

Abstract

This project directly contributes to the foundation of experimental research into the acquisition of translation revision competence. Funding is required to create a benchmark for the stylistic revision of a formal academic translation. The benchmark will guarantee the validity and reliability of ensuing experimental research. The data-collection instrument used for the benchmark and ensuing research consists of a source text (academic text in Dutch) and a target text (English translation of said academic source text). To establish the benchmark, 30 experts (professional translators) will be invited to conduct a stylistic revision of the English translation. The revision focus will be on detecting and correcting the inappropriate use of informal language in a formal academic context. Selected grammar and vocabulary problems in the English translation will form the 40 items that make up the data-collection instrument under investigation. A critical analysis of the amount and nature of revision will be performed to benchmark the stylistic revision of the translation. The resulting 'professional benchmark' will be used to select language items in the same academic translation for ensuing experimental research with non-experts (translators in training).

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Ethnicity, politics and State in popular sectors in contemporary Argentina. Ethnography of a conflict over relocations in a neighborhood of migrants and indigenous populations. 01/11/2017 - 30/04/2018

Abstract

The general objective of my doctoral research is to explore the link between ethnicity, politics and State in contemporary Argentina, from the perspective of inequality and social inclusion. Specifically, I analyse the ways in which categories of ethnic identification are related to the dynamics of daily politics in a popular neighbourhood of indigenous and migrant population located in a peripheral area of the city of La Plata (Buenos Aires, Argentina). This will be done from the empirical approach to a conflict for relocations in the neighbourhood motivated by the development of a public work of hydraulic infrastructure in the city. The methodology that guided the fieldwork carried out for the thesis in the period 2013-2016 was ethnography. It focused on a prolonged and systematic presence in the field, and in that context, the conduction of in-depth interviews and participant observations. In this period, I have conducted several interviews and participated in meetings, assemblies, and various interaction situations with inhabitants of the neighbour, political leaders, local referents, university agents, and state public officials. This was complemented by the collection of documentary materials (newspapers, official publications, technical reports, informative flyers of political organizations). The next stage of the research project from 2017 onwards will be focused on the deepening of the bibliographic collection and analysis (intending to expand the theoretical view of a mainly locally emplaced research toward global frameworks), the systematization and analysis of the collected data, and the writing of the doctoral thesis. In the following description of the PhD Project I present briefly the principal lines of the theoretical framework of the research and its academic and social possible contributions. The main hypothesis of the research is that ethnic identifications ("indigenous people" or "migrant people") of the inhabitants of the settlement are brought into play in the daily negotiation of resources with State and political actors (in particular in the framework of the process of relocation) to establish different criteria for merit and demerit of these public resources (the lands on which they live, the houses they would receive as part of the relocation). These criteria will have a roll on questioning or reinforcing inequalities in the neighbourhood. And for that reason are constantly disputed in the everyday context of political ties that the local people establish with each other and with external actors. In this process, the various senses, projects and interests that the State brings into play -through their state agents- are disputed, re-interpreted, modified "from below" by the local people.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

A stage for the world: towards an inclusive theatre experience. 01/10/2017 - 30/09/2020

Abstract

This project aims to investigate how the theatrical experience can be made accessible for blind and visually impaired patrons through audio description (AD), a specific audiovisual translation (AVT) mode that translates visual information into verbal information. Current audio description models focus mostly on rendering the story of a film or theatre performance accessible, and are therefore mainly inspired by narratology. Many aspects of a theatre performance such as the atmosphere, the aesthetics, the way actors physically "fill" their role, lighting, costumes, the use of video projections etc. are insufficiently taken into account. And it is precisely these features that are central to an integral theatrical experience. On the basis of a corpus of performances of Toneelhuis and NTGent this project will develop a new AD model that will allow for these intermedial features to be included in the translation for the target group. To this end, the intentions of the creative process will be integrated into the AD production.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Interlingual Live Subtitling for Access (ILSA). 01/09/2017 - 31/08/2020

Abstract

Internet, audiovisual media and digital technology are transforming our world. However, their potential will not be realised until they become fully accessible and enable the participation of all citizens in everyday life. Audiovisual translation and media accessibility have become drivers of social inclusion and integration and have lately received full recognition in the literature (Remael, Orero and Carroll 2012) and in EU-funded projects (DTV4ALL, ADLAB, HBB4ALL). In the area of subtitling for the deaf, a key priority for the users has always been to access live content such as news and public events (AOHL 2013). The preferred technique for this is respeaking, where subtitlers listen to the original soundtrack of a programme or public event and simultaneously repeat or rephrase what they hear to a speech recognition software that turns these words into intralingual subtitles for deaf and hard-of-hearing viewers and for all people who support their viewing with subtitles. When respeaking was first introduced in Europe in 2001, subtitling companies needed professionals who could produce intralingual live subtitles but did not know how to go about it, since there was no academic training or research in this area. As a result, respeaking practices differ greatly across countries and quality has suffered (Romero-Fresco, 2011). Since then, the work carried out, amongst others, by the partners in this application as part of EU-funded projects such as DTV4ALL and SAVAS, has helped to advance research and training in this area, and the industry is now employing respeakers trained at our institutions. However, a new challenge has now emerged, as migration streams and the increased multilingual and multicultural composition of societies worldwide have led to a growing demand for accessibility to live audiovisual content and events conducted in a foreign language. Broadcasters such as the BBC and VRT and political institutions such as the UK and the Spanish Parliament have highlighted the need to find professionals who can produce interlingual live subtitles (ILS) through respeaking, a new discipline that will require translating, subtitling and simultaneous interpreting skills. Although the partners in this project are the only scholars in the world who have so far produced research on this new discipline (Szarkowska et. al 2016, Romero-Fresco and Pochhacker 2017, Remael and Robert, fc.), there is still no training available. The main objective of ILSA is to design (IO3), develop (IO4 and IO5), test (IO6) and validate (IO7) the first training course for ILS and to provide a protocol for the implementation of this discipline in three real-life scenarios, namely TV, the classroom and the Parliament (IO7). The curriculum and training materials will be flexible so that they can be integrated in different learning environments for the users and initial target group of the course: translation and interpreting graduate and postgraduate students, and professionals already working as respeakers, interpreters or more generally in translation and accessibility.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Fashioning 'Belgische mode'. A Case Study of Belgian Fashion Designers 01/07/2017 - 31/12/2018

Abstract

This research project aims to study Belgian fashion designers from a case study approach, based on a mixed method of literature review and ethnography in order to understand the processes of discursive identity of 'Belgian' fashion theoretically anchored in the academic literature on fashion and national identity (Breward et al. 2002; Skov 2002; Kawamura 2004; Melchior et al. 2011; Segre Reinach 2011; Randisi 2015).

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Subtitling: Conceptualising Change. 01/02/2017 - 31/07/2017

Abstract

Subtitling: Conceptualising Change (working title) Authors: Jorge Díaz-Cintas en Aline Remael Publisher: Routledge Globalisation and technological developments have had a great impact on the evolution of translation practice, on the essence of what translation is, and, consequently, on the evolution of translation research. Their dual impact, and especially the impact of digitisation on Audiovisual Translation (AVT), subtitling more in particular, has been even greater and has been apparent for a much longer time. The AVT research domain originally comprised all translation modes rendering audiovisual productions (film, television, internet etc.) in a foreign language accessible. Today it also encompasses Media Accessibility (MA), which renders audiovisual productions accessible for users who are visually or aurally challenged. Apart from this expansion of AVT into the domain of MA, the actions undertaken by stakeholders, as well as digitisation and the availability of new software have also transformed "consumers" into "prosumers", and they have led to the development of fansubbing and crowdsourcing by amateurs and special interest groups, next to "professional" translation. AVT target groups or users therefore continue to diversify, influencing demand and the evolution of professional forms of AVT and MA. Subtitling: Conceptualising Change, aims to contribute to understanding and conceptualising change in the field of AVT today, to offer insight in the main causes of the above-mentioned evolutions in AVT, and their consequences for the further development of traditional commercial interlingual subtitling. It constitutes "basic research" into the complexity of change that investigates how new forms of translation develop and how they relate to existing forms but it also has an applied component that addresses how this fast and continuous change can affect the audiovisual industry as well as audiovisual translators. The project's theoretical framework combines recent insights from complexity theory as applied to Translation Studies by Marais (2014) with insights from Latour's (2005) Actor Network Theory. Subtitling: Conceptualising Change, comprises the following chapters (the main author is mentioned as appropriate): 0. Preface (JDC & AR) 1. Chapter one Reconceptualising subtitling and subtitling research (AR) 2. Chapter two The professional environment and its interactions (JDC) 3. Chapter three Intersemiotic cohesion and research into multimodality (AR) 4. Chapter four The impact of technology on practice and research (JDC) 5. Chapter five Formal technology-bound conventions (JDC) 6. Chapter six The linguistics of subtitling: increased hybridity (AR) 7. Chapter seven Hybridity in inter- and intralingual translation Issues (JDC & AR) 8. Conclusions (JDC & AR) 9. Bibliography 10. Index  

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Audio Description: A laboratory for the development of a new professional profile (ADLAB PRO). 01/09/2016 - 31/08/2019

Abstract

ADLAB-PRO will develop a new state-of-the art curriculum and blended learning teaching materials for the training of audio description professionals. These professionals will be able to write and produce quality audio descriptions, i.e. short verbal translations of visual information, rendering various culture products, including and audiovisual media but also exhibitions and live events, accessible for the blind and visually impaired.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

The Manifesto of the Italian fascist intellectuals. The text genesis and the network behind it. 01/07/2016 - 31/12/2017

Abstract

The project sets the stage for a future PhD research project on the genesis of the Manifesto of Italian Fascist Intellectuals to the Intellectuals of all Nations (1925-26) and the network behind it. Funding is required for the first step of a PhD research project. This first step aims at constituting the 'genetic dossier' of the Manifesto, answering the following research questions: which documents can be used to study the genesis of the Manifesto (Italian and translated version)? Where are they to be found? How can they be copied, transcribed and edited? During this phase, a PhD student will search, collect and copy the existing drafts of the Manifesto (Rome, Archivio Gentile), as well as all exogenetic documents (letters, journals, minutes, contracts) showing the role of the network behind the Manifesto in the genesis of the text. He will also collect all biographical information about the members of the network

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

The Manifesto of the Italian fascist intellectuals. The text genesis and the network behind it. 01/04/2016 - 31/03/2017

Abstract

The project sets the stage for a future research project on the genesis of the Manifesto degli intellettuali italiani fascisti agli intellettuali di tutte le nazioni (1925).Funding is required for the first step of the research project. This first step aims at constituting the 'Genetic Dossier' of the Manifesto, answering the following research questions: which documents can be used to study the genesis of the Manifesto? Where are they to be found? How can they be copied, transcribed and edited?. During this phase, the promoter will search, collect and copy the existing drafts of the Manifesto (Rome, Archivio Gentile), as well as all exogenetic documents (letters, journals, minutes, contracts) showing the role of the network behind the Manifesto in the genesis of the text. He will also begin collecting biographical information about the members of the network.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Accessible Culture and Training (ACT). 01/09/2015 - 31/08/2018

Abstract

Accessibility plays a major role in modern knowledge-based Information societies. The potential of Accessibility through ICT and Assistive Technologies (AT) for inclusion and participation of all citizens is increasingly growing allowing for a full integration in everyday life. The proportion of people depending on Accessibility (15% in 2013) increases and EU demography shows the growing tendency to eAccessiblity dependency for its ageing population. National as well as European legislation supporting eAccessibility is in place and the UN-Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the most powerful, global expression in support of Inclusion and Equality, has a clear focus on eAccessibility, AT and Design for All. The time has come to establish the new professional profile of media accessibility expert/manager, and its training. Full participation of all citizens in cultural events - as end users or participants - should become part of their daily life as for people without disabilities, equal opportunity and access to culture are Human Rights. The ACT project proposes the definition of a new professional profile, that of the "Media Accessibility Expert/Manager for the Scenic Arts", and also the various types of training activities associated to this professional.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Text production: the translator's writing competence unveiled 01/07/2015 - 31/12/2016

Abstract

Translation and writing are increasingly converging in the professional and educational fields, but it is unclear which competencies translators and writers actually share. This project examines how translation competence and writing competence are related, what writing competence of translators entails and how it is different from the writing competence of writers. The results can inspire a larger study on text-productive competence.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Audio Description for the theatre: preparing the stage 01/07/2015 - 31/12/2016

Abstract

This innovative research into theatre audio description (AD) for the blind and visually impaired (BVIP), set up in collaboration with 2 major Flemish theatres, identifies the challenges of AD for postdrama, and investigates their applicability to other genres & national contexts, laying solid foundations for follow-up PhD research, also on a European level, and contributing to the development of strategies to improve the BVIP's theatrical experience.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

The translation of fanfiction into Portuguese. The (in)fidelities of readers/translators. 01/03/2015 - 30/11/2015

Abstract

The research focuses on the translation of fanfiction by reader/translators into Portuguese. Unlike the author/reader, who continues the story or modifies it in order to please other readers, the reader/translator makes the text available to the Brazilian / Portuguese public. This task is accomplished in collaboration with the reviewer, also called beta -reader, who is the 'second reader ' of the translation process . Translated fanfiction is the result of a double process of rewriting - both by fans (the author/readers) who take characters from other authors and use them in new parallel stories, as by the translator because, according to Lefevere (1992 ), to translate 'is the most obviously recognizable type of rewriting, and potentially the most influential because it is able to project the image of an author and/or a (series of) work (s) in another culture, lifting that author and/or those works beyond the boundaries of their culture of origin'. The research will be based on a selected corpus of four translated fanfiction novels of the series Twilight / Twilight by Stephenie Meyer in Brazil, a literature review, interviews with Brazilian translators and sample analysis. Attention will be given to specific aspects related to the translation of fanfiction, such as publication pace, the use of instant translation programs in addition to other translation tools and, finally, the relationship between the reader/writer (s) of the original fanfiction and its translation(s) .

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Brazilian chronicle in Spanish: a synchronic anthology. 01/08/2014 - 30/04/2015

Abstract

This research proposes a translated anthology of 19th and 20th Century Brazilian chroniclers into Spanish. Firstly, it develops a theoretical ground where anthology is defined as a genre and as a critical mechanism, positioning the role of anthologies in translation within the culture that hosts them and aiming at relating anthologies and translations as mediation processes. Besides, the research traces the development of the culture of the newspaper and the chronicle both in Brazil, and in Argentina and Uruguay, spanning from the second half of the 19th century until the first half of the 20th century. This "mapping" of the genre contributes to justify the selection of texts to be translated, based on the necessities of the literary system that will receive them and in the tradition of translations previously established within the "target" countries. Comments on the translation made discuss the particularities of the translation of chronicles regarding the Translation Studies framework.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Towards a model of translation revision competence 01/07/2014 - 31/12/2015

Abstract

Translation revision competence has scarcely been addressed as a research topic in translation studies and there is no well-developed model of translation revision competence. The aim of this project is to construct a translation revision competence model and to initiate its validation through an experimental pilot study. The results would subsequently be used as a starting point for a larger study (e.g., a PhD project) on revision competence.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

The language of translation in Brazil: written vs. oral discourse. 01/02/2014 - 31/01/2015

Abstract

This project represents a formal research agreement between UA and on the other hand CAPES. UA provides CAPES research results mentioned in the title of the project under the conditions as stipulated in this contract. The focus of the research project is on how written oral discourse is used in fictional literary works in Brazil, observing and describing how particular kinds of written representations of oral discourse are filtered and rendered into Brazilian Portuguese. The key issue involves the strategies adopted by Brazilian Portuguese translators in light of their perspectives, which are drawn from their international interface. Given Agatha Christie's importance and ubiquity in the Brazilian book market, her works can serve as a systematic illustration of how certain key features of literary discourse are represented, especially the distinction between oral and written discourse, which in turn will clarify regularities in the Brazilian approach to translating oral discourse. And, finally, this diachronic analysis of fictional texts of a particular kind could help steer the evolution of written/oral Brazilian discourse.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Science in search of dialogue: 104 years of Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. 01/02/2014 - 31/01/2015

Abstract

This project represents a formal research agreement between UA and on the other hand CAPES. UA provides CAPES research results mentioned in the title of the project under the conditions as stipulated in this contract. According to M.A.K. Halliday, to learn science is to learn the language of science (2004 p. 138), which is to say that scientific practice is derived from and embedded in dialog. When applied collectively, however, this proposition takes on new dimensions involving concepts from organization studies with respect to multilingualism and language policy. As a case study, the complete corpus from the journal of a leading Brazilian public health/tropical disease institute, Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, will be analyzed to map the networking involved in its developmental trajectory, which mirrors the development of science in Brazil. The changing roster of partners, particularly regarding scientific institutions in France, Germany and North America, and their type and degree of involvement over its 100+ years is reflected in the journal's widely vacillating language policy, which has culminated in an English only format shortly after going online in 1996 and the foreign outsourcing of translation and language editing in 2013.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Audio Description: Lifelong Access for the Blind (ADLAB). 01/10/2013 - 30/09/2014

Abstract

The ADLAB project 2011-2014) of the EU LLL programme developed the very first European audio description guidelines with as its main focus film and television., following in-depth research into the current state of the art in practice and research and reception research among the target group. It received a 100% evaluation of the EU. The current ADLAB-PRO is a follow-up project.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Translation and nation building in Brazil. The role of Dom Pedro II. 01/10/2013 - 31/07/2014

Abstract

This project represents a formal research agreement between UA and on the other hand CAPES. UA provides CAPES research results mentioned in the title of the project under the conditions as stipulated in this contract. The project intends to promote the intellectual activity of Dom Pedro II, last emperor of Brazil, but little cited and known for his work as a translator. I Intend to analyze the literary translations from several classical and modern languages performed by the Emperor and ignored by official records that focused especially on his political and administrative activities. The objective of this project consists of the reconstruction not only of D. Pedro II translator´s profile, his ideas and attitudes about the translational activity, but also to study the influence on the creation of a Brazilian national identity. From an interdisciplinary a point of view, this project aims to further contribute to Translation Studies, Genetic Criticism, Anthropology, Cultural Studies, History and Brazilian Literature. As a theoretical and methodological framework, this research is informed by Descriptive Translation Studies, the Genetic Criticism, Anthropology and Cultural Studies.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Dom Pedro II as a translator of Hitopadeça. A critical-genetic analysis of the creative process. 01/10/2013 - 31/07/2014

Abstract

This project represents a formal research agreement between UA and on the other hand CAPES. UA provides CAPES research results mentioned in the title of the project under the conditions as stipulated in this contract. This project aims to analyse the manuscripts of the Hitopadeśa's translation made by Pedro d'Alcantara, the last Brazilian emperor. This investigation uses a combination of Genetic Criticism and the Descriptive Translation Studies as a methodological base and intends to detail the creative process during the translation. This work also intends to give greater visibility to this new material, originally written in Sanskrit, which shows D. Pedro II as an intellectual concerned with creating a national identity, and with consolidating and promoting the nation's progress.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

'Paul et Virginie' (Bernardin de Saint-Pierre). A study of 20th Century Brazilian translations and paratexts. 01/10/2013 - 31/01/2014

Abstract

This project represents a formal research agreement between UA and on the other hand CAPES. UA provides CAPES research results mentioned in the title of the project under the conditions as stipulated in this contract. Study of the 20th Century translations of the French novel Paul et Virginie (Bernardin de Saint-Pierre). Study of the paratexts and retranslation into Brazilian Portuguese.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)