Research team

Product development

Expertise

Medical device development

AI-Driven VR training in an adaptive user context 01/01/2021 - 31/12/2022

Abstract

The project will explore AI and 3D scanning techniques in the development of VR training courses. Proofs of concept (POCs) and user cases on how VR training courses can optimise motivation and knowledge transfer among employees. This project is initially aimed at 50 SMEs that develop VR training simulations. In addition, 129 training and education centers that offer training courses and issue certificates belong to the target group.

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Sizing system for respirator masks. 01/01/2021 - 31/12/2021

Abstract

This project seeks to develop a novel sizing system specifically for filtering facepiece respirator masks. We will work from anthropometric databases and 3D scanning of face and head shapes of participants to build up the sizing system for adults and adolescents. The masks will be designed, fabricated and tested at the Antwerp Design Factory, and qualitative and quantitative studies of the masks to be performed with users to establish important factors like model comfort and performance.

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D Thermal imaging of people using statistical shape models. 01/10/2020 - 30/09/2022

Abstract

In this project, we will develop an easy to use method to monitor the thermal condition of a person as a function of time, with potential applications entailed in physical treatment or a sports activity. The method employs amongst others thermal imaging. To that end, we create a virtual 3D model of the person of interest. The proposed technique will enable the development of a flexible and mobile measurement system, which can be used in labs, hospitals, rehabilitation centers, sports training facilities, etc.

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3DScan^3. 01/01/2020 - 31/12/2021

Abstract

This is a joint application of research groups at the faculty of Design Sciences. At this faculty, the research focus on the human being in relation to artefacts comprising products and services, design heritage, and buildings. The factor that connects this myriad of research activities is scale – the human experiential scale of the tangible and visual artefacts, that can be perceived directly with the sensory system, without additional instrumentation (e.g., magnifying glasses or telescope). We aim to consider, understand, and reflect on artefacts that are the result of a design process, situated on a scale from millimetres to kilometres. For all research groups, enhanced digitalisation systems are required to keep up with the pace of competing institutions, or in some aspects the new infrastructure will allow us to go beyond the state of current art in design science (esp. digital heritage/time machine and digital human body modelling).

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Development and validation of a user-friendly method to deploy immersive technologies in the process of product development. 01/11/2019 - 30/10/2021

Abstract

The goal of this research is to provide a user-friendly method for product developers to interact with Virtual, Augmented Reality and/or Mixed reality (MR, merging the real and the virtual world). We will define and validate a method to deploy MR in the process of product development. The project was defined by the observation that the product development process can be improved by revisiting interaction in mixed MR with design objects. For example, organic shapes (e.g. geometrical surfaces with non-trivial curvatures) can be directly handled in MR and then tuned to flexible manufacturing techniques such as 3D printing, bypassing the need for complex and cumbersome on-screen manipulations in digital drawing. The goal of this research is achieved by the development, implementation, testing and validation of a toolkit that incorporates latest advancements in MR in different stages of the design process: ideation, system design, concept design and prototyping/manufacturing. Envisioned improvements are: increased efficiency, more accurate communication, enhanced perception, faster verification, less iterations and faster decision making. Consequently, the toolkit will improve the outcome of the product development process and/or reduce efforts to achieve a non-inferior product. The toolkit focuses on products that directly interact with the human body.

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Preventive measures for high physical strain workers 01/10/2019 - 30/09/2021

Abstract

In this project we focus on preventive measures for dockers under physical load. We aim to achieve maximal support through recommendations for new products and training, in collaboration with physiotherapy.

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The use of 3D technology for the restoration of complex cultural heritage objects. 01/01/2019 - 31/12/2022

Abstract

Fragile and very detailed cultural heritage objects, such as sculptured ceramics, can't be restored manually without further damage. 3D technology could be a great help in the process of repair. This includes 3D scanning, modelling, and 3D printing. A restored object, which is treated for aesthetic, commercial or museological purposes and with sustainable materials, has an overall greater value. For example, the proposed research would make it possible to produce replicas of fine and detailed sculptures for a better tactile sense experiences. There are four main aims in this research proposal: - Developing a method for restorers by creating a digital toolbox: what kind of scanning, modelling and printing techniques are available and for what type of sculpted ceramics or other artworks could they be used? - Therefore, there is also the need to get more insight the damages present in cultural heritage, starting with sculptured ceramic objects. - Defining which conditions are necessary for a good repair: Authenticity and other values are important to consider during conservation and the correspondent ethical decision has an influence on the visual result in the end. - Formulation and validation of the methodology by a collection of cases.

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Fast track development FFP2-FFP3 face masks. 16/03/2020 - 15/03/2021

Abstract

This project started with anticipated shortages in respiratory protective equipment (RPE) at the beginning of the COVID crisis, March 2020, with the challenge to develop an emergency production line of FFP2 and FFP3. The aim was set to achieve local production, with documented and ensured quality. A design brief was drawn from existing respiratory equipment available at UZA and a protocol for emergency validation and quality control was derived from RPE regulations (EN149). Validation methods were constructed in consult with FAGG and FOD-economie. Our team at Antwerp Design Factory immediately started concurrent engineering both modeling, tooling, sourcing and validation. Results comprised validated models for industrial production (curved patterns), fully customizable production line with linear patterns including emergency quality control, with external validation by IFA and Mensura. The customizable line is extremely compact and produces 5000 FFP2 masks in one 38hour shift with 8 operators. Tooling can be realized by 3D prints and laser cutters. Our developments were supported by a scientific advisory board from policy makers, academic and industrial stakeholders. Masks were provided to UZA, ZNA to protect caregivers at COVID units and to the province of Antwerp, to initiated contact tracing.

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Optimization of functions in human-product systems. 01/04/2019 - 30/03/2020

Abstract

Design of products that closely interact with the human body require extensive integration of geometrical and/or physiological knowledge. In that design process it is common to design and validate firstly a human-product system that fulfills a set of specifications, given in advance. The system to be designed often contains some unknown functions that have to be provided by the designer for optimal performance, comfort and safety of the end product. These unknown functions are regularly pinpointed by the designer based on experience, user insights and testing. The past decades, structural optimization techniques such as topological optimization have found their way to standard CAD applications. A commonly known example is found in structural CAD/CAM, e.g. car design, such as a chassis that can be design for 3D printing by only specifying forces (statics & dynamics), optimized for weight, strength, dynamic load and vibrations. A promising application domain is 3D prints of ortheses or prosthetic connections, where statics are optimized towards geometry of the body; to be extended through current research with soft tissue and dynamics. The specific aim of this application is to initiate a design method to deploy state-of-the-art mathematical optimization algorithms and computational methods in the design of flow systems for medical substances, with the aim to optimize therapeutic, diagnostic and/or user related effectiveness of the envisioned end product, at the level of system design (human-product system). The specific exercise that is conducted for this aim, within the realm of this small project, is determining the rheology of medical substances (fluids) from experiments that can be easily conducted in vitro. Rheology determines flow behavior which is, in turn, crucial for proper functioning at the level of diagnostics, therapeutics and/or usability. For example, shear stresses in cell therapeutics during injection play a crucial role for effectiveness and viability of injected cells at place were they should be active or activated (e.g. under the skin). Shear stresses are also directly related to ease of use for injection, pain and/or discomfort for the subject. Summarizing, shear stress in function of shear rate is the overall determinant for the flow behavior of the substance and in extension the properties of an envisioned applicator. This unknown function (rheology-in Newtonian fluids equivalent with viscosity) will be determined by functional optimization as a generalization of Lagrange multiplicators matched with empirical data. The specific results of this project will enable us to measure rheology with only very limited amount of substance. An additional advantage is that this can be done with easy to handle and achievable equipment, for example a power bench with controlled displacement and respective logged forces. As such, internal shear stresses and flow of medical substances can be modelled easily and accurately, whereas the substance would be otherwise (too) expensive to assess with complex and expensive equipment, normally needed for extensive rheological studies. The acquired info can directly be deployed in the design and optimization of next generation medical applicators, e.g. for intradermal vaccination and/or for therapeutic cell delivery, optimized for therapeutic efficiency and usability. The broader aim of this project is to initiate a method to incorporate state-of-the-art mathematical optimization techniques within the design process of products that require close interaction with the human body. This overall aim will contribute in the long run to the dissemination of powerful mathematical methods for practical applications in product development and industrial design. As such, the project could be a germ for a future proof, data-driven product development process. Insights gained in practical applications and design problems could, in turn, provide input for future math developments.

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Optimization of a microfluidic strip and device through design and engineering of the diagnosis rate of the minimum inhibitory concentrations (mi) of antibiotics (MIC-STRIP). 01/02/2019 - 31/07/2020

Abstract

Early availability of information on bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility is of key importance for the management of infectious disease patients. MIC-STRIP is a novel phenotypic approach that achieves readout of the antibiotic susceptibility profile of a bacterial infection within 4 hours, moving the time to modify antibiotic treatment from the next day to within the same day.

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Caretech: missing link between research, development and application of care techology 01/01/2019 - 31/12/2019

Abstract

At the university of Antwerp, innovative products/services are defined based on state of the art scientific knowledge and technology. The aim of this project is to develop a workflow to facilitate and accelerate transition from these innovations in the domain of health and health care, to actual enrollment.

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Validation of markerless body tracking for real world gait analysis. 01/07/2018 - 31/12/2019

Abstract

Markerless motion tracking became very popular and common since the introduction of the Microsoft Kinect in 2010 in both the gaming community and industry. To use markerless motion tracking in the field of medical rehabilitation, a higher accuracy and reliability is needed. To achieve this goal, we will combine a 2-D skeleton detection algorithm with the data from multiple 3-D cameras. The developed procedure will be validated with the marker-based Vicon system of the M²OCEAN lab and calibrated 3D body scans of subjects in static position. Afterwards, the technique will be implemented on a treadmill to evaluate the gait of a person. To simulate real world gait information, subjects will wear virtual reality glasses. This virtual environment stimulates the brain and influences the gait of a person, which results in extra information compared to stand alone treadmill walking.

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Scapula Tilter: correction of scapular dyskinesis in patients with subacromial pain syndrome: the ffect of an orthopedic device. 01/09/2017 - 01/03/2019

Abstract

Subacromial pain syndrome is the most common cause of shoulder pain, accounting for 50% of all shoulder pain cases. Scapular dyskinesis has shown to be a key factor associated with many shoulder disorders, such as the subacromial pain syndrome and glenohumeral shoulder instability. Two Master students product development have created (and privately defended) a basic prototype of an orthopaedic device that is aimed at correcting the scapular position. The current project proposal is aimed at bringing this product to the market. First, the prototype will be further developed and adapted with confirmation of its efficacy, i.e. the apparatus can indeed correct scapular position. Second, this improved prototype will be used within a smallscale clinical study to demonstrate that the apparatus can reduce pain in patients with subacromial pain syndrome. At the same time, a trajectory of valorization will be developed to investigate the possibilities of bringing the product to the market.

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Developing a user-friendly control system for a dexterous arm prosthesis for children with a bilateral transverse arm reduction 01/07/2017 - 31/12/2018

Abstract

The loss of an upper limb dramatically affects a person's daily activities. Recent developments in bionics and prostheses make it possible to compensate this loss of functionality with a bionic robotic hand. These bionic hands are commercially available and can enable a person to perform multiple types of hand movements. Controlling a bionic hand is in most cases based on the interpretation of two surface electromyography (EMG) signals. To control the multiple degrees of freedom (DOF) of a robotic hand with only two EMG signals, a sequential control strategy is used. This sequential control strategy requires a lot of training from the user. Currently different strategies are being developed to enable a user friendly and more efficient type of control. Most developments in the field of upper extremity prostheses are aimed at adults with a single arm reduction. Children with a double arm reduction are often unable to use the available prostheses and those that are available don't provide a solution for their specific needs. This project aims to integrate the most recent developments in prosthesis control and bionic robotics and make them available for children with a double arm reduction. The research is unique and novel because it aspires to develop and verify the use of non-invasive control strategies that enable children with a double or single arm reduction to control prostheses (with multiple DOF) outside of lab conditions. This project is primarily focused on one user. Larrissa (anonymous name) is an 8-year-old Belgium girl that misses both hands and feet. At the age of 1,5 she lost both hands and feet due to illness. Because her current prosthesis (and all other prosthesis) isn't suited for a bilateral amputee and offers little functionality she remains highly dependent on the help of others. The development was initiated in 2015 by Jos d'Haens (BAP physiotherapy, MOVANT) and was complemented with the master thesis of Erik Haring. This collaborative project between the department of Product Development and Rehabilitation sciences and physiotherapy at the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences resulted in a first prototype of a prosthetic socket, designed for Larissa. Jos d'Haens developed a miniaturised robotic hand that can perform three primary grip types. The compact dimensions make this bionic hand especially suitable for children. The prototype of the prosthetic socket (physical connection with the wearer) was the tangible output of the master thesis of Erik Haring. This project aims to provide the missing link, a user-friendly and intuitive control system that translates human input into desired movements of the robotic hand. We defined two clusters of research questions within the project 1. Human input: Which signals can be captured within the stump of the child? Are these signals suitable to serve as input for an intuitive control strategy for the prosthesis? 2. Control strategy: How can we transform these signals into a user-friendly control strategy? 2.1 Focus on movements: Developing a prosthesis control strategy that enables the child to perform at least the three primary grip patterns: power grip, precision grip and lateral grip. With these three grips users can perform 80% of the most common daily activities. 2.2 Focus on intuitive use and user-friendliness: With the actual feedback of the child we aim for a control system that can activate at least three grip patterns in a user-friendly and intuitive way. Apart from a functional fit, we will gather user feedback on the social acceptance of the movements and look of the prosthesis. We hope to apply and expand the knowledge and insights obtained from this study to other projects for young amputees. The methodology could serve as a basis for the development and design of similar intuitive and child friendly control strategies for prosthesis and assistive devices.

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Development of a modular product-architecture for wearable EEG headsets (Ctrl-Mind). 01/07/2017 - 30/06/2018

Abstract

Brain computer interfaces (BCIs) enable the user to control his or her environment directly, omitting the need for speech and/or bypassing the neuro‐muscular system. The BCI market is expected to have an annual growth of 15% the forthcoming decade. Non‐invasive BCIs, based on caption of EEG signals, have an expected share of 40% of this grow market. Current R&D roadmaps mainly focus on technology development and – adaptation. One of the key facilitators to unlock this market, complementary to current roadmaps, is the development of user –friendly wearable EEG headsets. This POC project responds to this opportunity by combining two innovative R&D aspects. We combine 1) state‐of‐the art parametric design methods for using statistical shape models of the human body (3D anthropometry) in product development (3D ergonomics) with 2) an innovative system for automatic electrode positions, to construct an architecture for wearable EEG‐headsets that is modular, in the sense that the design allows for various embodiments in function of target population and BCI‐application. The resulting development platform will allow exploitation in a B2B setting in the abovementioned growing BCI market.

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ColdID: prevention of nail toxicity at cancer patients. 01/06/2017 - 31/05/2019

Abstract

Cytotoxic chemotherapy is a commonly used treatment for curing breast cancer, prostate cancer and lung cancer. Cytotoxic chemotherapy may however also induce serious side effects such as nail changes (e.g., color, brittleness, damages, ...). In its most severe form, this may lead to onycholysis or the releasing of a portion of the nail, which is often preceded or accompanied by severe pain. Nail toxicity is observed at 44% of patients treated with taxanes. Nail toxicity can be avoided or mitigated through the use of ice gloves. Ice gloves are cooled to -20 ° C and worn during a chemotherapeutic treatment. Unfortunately, the use of ice gloves is very painful and therapeutic compliances are limited. This project allows to develop a medical instrument to avoid nail toxicity at cancer patients. The instrument aims to allow a painless and effective prevention of nail toxicity.

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InLocoMotion: Dynamic 3D human body shapes from static 3D scans and sparse motion tracking for the improvement of human-product systems: a case on cycling drag force estimation 01/01/2017 - 31/12/2020

Abstract

The human body is a complex biomechanical system with a large anatomical diversity. New methods for industrial design are emerging based on accurate 3D models and statistical analysis of their rich spatial geometry and complex variations. Most applications of this 3D anthropometry in the field of Product Development are confined to static 3D shapes, whereas many products such as garments, (space) suits, sports equipment, medical devices, vehicles, and household appliances might benefit from accurate dynamic deforming 3D models of the human body. Currently, even for products that dynamically interact with the human body (e.g. shoes), only static geometric information is considered, thereby ignoring the potential to consider full 3D surface in motion and dynamic deformation. In this Baekeland PhD project, we will construct and validate design methods to use dynamic 3D anthropometry in the process of product development and extend the use of static 3D anthropometry. We will combine the aforementioned state-of-the-art statistical shape models with state-of-the-art animation techniques and translate them to CAD tools and techniques to support the envisioned extension. Firstly, a method is provided to generate any individual 3D body shape in any position from a combination of geometrical shape information and temporal position parameters that is both easy to assess. Shape information will comprise an individual's shape in a static pose, e.g. standing position, or a set of 1D anthropometric parameters. Position parameters will be achieved by adapting reliable and accurate of-site motion capturing techniques. We will also investigate how product developers might use these parameterized person-specific dynamic 3D models in the process of product development i.e., what shape and position information they need during the design process and what the requirements are on that information such that they will use it most effectively. This will pinpoint how product developers will preferably interact with the envisioned human-product models. Next, these requirements will be used to develop CAD tools and techniques in which products can be designed on person-specific dynamic human body models, and resulting human-product models can be tuned and optimized by a anthropometric measurements and position parameters. For instance, a stack of person-specific human-product models can be generated with the same effort required to generate only one such model. Finally, we will validate our method by simulating drag force of cyclists, in comparison to ground truth values in a wind tunnel. The target is to come very close to real drag force values with a fraction of the cost and investment. Although this PhD will directly contribute to the subfield of aero-design and engineering in cycling, the lead up methods will also prove the accuracy of underlying models. We will thus establish a direct and accurate link for the product developer between human(-product) CAD models and the actual physical model to support simulation, verification and validation. Our method will improve the process of product development in several aspects. It will have the potential to reduce development costs by omitting the need for physical prototyping. An early stage verification of product functionality and composition of design specifications will require less iterations and entail a shorter time to market for new products. Our method will not only enhance comfort and functionality of final products but will also allow to develop new categories of consumer and medical wearable products, that owe their functionality to close and dynamic product-body interaction and extensive ergonomics.

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Virtual SIZE; 01/12/2016 - 30/06/2019

Abstract

The project's overall aim is to develop a technology platform that allows developing cycling apparel with an optimized fit based on personal measurements. The first objective is to develop a measurement system that allows to measure an individual cyclist. The second objective makes it possible to develop a 3D shape model of trunk and limbs of a cyclists.

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Accuracy of vibrotactile feedforward for posture and motion steering. 01/07/2016 - 31/12/2017

Abstract

The skin is the largest organ of the human body. It is a barrier between our body and the environment protecting us from dehydration, infection and injuries. The skin thus provides us with a sense of touch which has several functions such as 1) providing tactile information about our environment and 2) providing input to enable motor interactions with our direct environment e.g. grasping and manipulating objects. Due to the bimodal functionality of the tactile sense, the skin is particularly interesting for communicating motion related instructions through haptic cues directly engaging our motor learning systems. Opportunities for applications have been identified in sports and training, surgery, music, navigation, prosthesis, to develop assistive devices e.g. navigation aid for the visually impaired and for balance correction in vestibular disorders, to attain correct posture, gait, and for the purpose of rehabilitation e.g. after stroke. However, research is mainly confined to in-lab applications. In order to unlock the realm of opportunities for off-site applications, wearable haptic communication systems for posture and movement management should be developed and evaluated. Thereby vibrotactile signals directly deployed onto the skin are identified most promising for wearable systems. Frequency, intensity/amplitude, burst, and rhythm characteristics for optimal perception at various body locations are known in literature. We will investigate the accuracy of a basic system that steers actual posture and movement towards a reference condition through feedforward, that is, the subject receiving instructions on the actual or future desired reference condition. The independent variable in our study design is the feedforward time. The depended variable is a measure accuracy obtained by integrating the total immediate joint angle differences of desired and reference position over the time domain. An optimal feedforward time is explored and validated for movement instructions and for obstacle avoidance with vision and in blindfolded subjects.

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Development and validation of an electrode positioning system for EIM measurement. 01/05/2016 - 30/06/2017

Abstract

Active muscle contractions are measured through elektro myography (EMG), where the electrical signals of nerves causing the muscle to contract are measured. The challenge is to measure inactive muscle contraction, aslo known as enhanced muscle tone, were no causing electrical signal is produced, however the muscle is in a contracted state. A well-known inconvenience is an enhanced muscle tone of the trapezius (stiff neck), in which physiotherapy is commonly applied to relieve the disease. In this project we aim to develop a method to measure muscle contraction independent from EMG signals, that can be applied to measure muscle tone and assess the effect of physiotherapy in patients who suffer an enhanced muscle tone.

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Assessment of electrode pressure and signal quality of improved wearable EEG headset prototypes 01/04/2016 - 31/03/2017

Abstract

The human body appears in many sizes and shapes. Traditional anthropometry aims to map linear-1D- geometrical body characteristics and their statistical distributions. Advancements in 3D scanning, image construction and image processing resulted in a realm of databases containing true and accurate 3D forms of the human body, with accelerated construction of new body forms and databases. A statistical shape model is a collection of 3D forms such that each point on a given form has a corresponding point on any other form of that collection. Moreover, in a statistical shape model of the human body (or body part), similar anatomical landmarks ought to correspond, for example the tip of each nose; statistical shape models take account of the true-3D- geometrical variation of the human body. With the appropriate design tools to make the wealth on geometrical information contained in statistical shape models available for the purpose of product development, better products can be developed, especially: more comfortable, better fitting and thereby better functioning products. In current optical 3D scans, subjects wear a hairnet to prevent artifacts and to reconstruct the form of their skull. However the actual skull form is only approximated due to the presence of hair layer, lacking abilities in traditional 3D scanning to construct a true and accurate statistical shape model of the human skull. In the doctorate of D. Lacko, statistical shape models of the human skull are constructed from medial images (CT and MRI scans) thereby excluding the effect of hair. Complementing CAD tools and methods for parametric design, sizing systems and true generic manikins [22] allow developing new products that closely interact with the human skull such as hearing aids and wearable electroencephalogram (EEG) headsets. EEG is a technique to measure brain activity through detection of small electric field fluctuations by sensitive electrodes, amplification and signal processing. EEG registration has a myriad of potential clinical and off-site applications comprising diagnosis of e.g. ALS, Alzheimer, polysomnography, epilepsy monitoring, enriched, augmented, supplemented or alternative communication, research e.g. cognitive processing and didactics, associations, commercial applications such as gaming and neuro-marketing,... The development of wearable, comfortable, acceptable and calibrated EEG headsets is needed to improve clinical use and to boost potential off-site applications. With the accurate shape model of the human skull combined with CAD tools, non-functional wearable EEG headsets (mock-ups) are developed within the research groups Product Development and Vision Lab with the following prperties: 1) better fit and stability and 2) reproducible electrode positioning on the skull after successive mounting, compared to current commercially available EEG headsets. The research hypothesis is that our EEG headsets with these assets will also allow capturing EEG signals with improved signal quality. This hypothesis was never investigated due to the lack of stable fitting EEG headsets with calibrated and reproducible electrode positioning on the skull. Within this project, resources are asked to endow our EEG mock-ups with pressure and impedance/admittance measurements for testing this hypothesis.

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Project website

Multidisciplinary research on vaccination and infectious diseases (Vaxinfectio-PO). 01/01/2015 - 31/12/2020

Abstract

Integrated vaccine and microbiological research with a focus on increasing the understanding of the immune response in prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines (including tumour vaccines) and on the containment of antibiotic resistance. Several innovative research topics are ongoing or in the pipeline: potential development of theranostic devices (e.g. rapid Point of Care Diagnostics, optical biosensors, lab-on-chip, microarrays) for pathogen detection and associated resistance in collaboration with several European research partners; potential development of new rapid diagnostic tests and injection devices; potential development of patient-specific cellular vaccines for targeted antiviral and anticancer therapy.

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CADANS: A CAD platform for 3D Statistical anthropometric Design. 01/01/2014 - 31/12/2015

Abstract

The project aims to develop tools and techniques to deploy the wealth of information contained in statistical shape models of the human body in the process of new product development. The focus is on the deployment of shape models of the human head, in close colaboration with stakeholders from industry.

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Investigation of a new medical device with guaranteed collection of first fraction urine for the detection of human papilloma virus (COLLI-PEE). 01/07/2013 - 30/06/2014

Abstract

This project represents a formal research agreement between UA and on the other hand Novosanis. UA provides Novosanis research results mentioned in the title of the project under the conditions as stipulated in this contract. Vaxinfectio took care of clinical investigations and Product Development took care of the optimization of usability aspects. The project received the IWT-award 2015 in the category societal relevance.

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    Categorical Probability. 01/01/2007 - 31/12/2008

    Abstract

    We aim to apply approach theorie, developed by the research group ATS, on spaces of measures, and thus to obtain a generalisation of the already exisiting so called weak approach structure on such spaces. Thereby, the interaction with the already existing convexity theories [Z. Semadeni, N. Pumpluen, R. Rohrl] will be of paramount importance, as it will enable us to recover the algebraic component of our theory. Thus we have strong indications to obtain a monad for describing Stochastic Processes [M. Giry] in a non metrical context.

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