Ongoing projects

Unraveling the effects of Diversity and Inclusion (D&I) Branding: Developing a composite measure and investigating its effect on diversity attraction and retention. 01/11/2022 - 31/10/2024

Abstract

For firms to remain productive and competitive, diversity and inclusion (D&I) is crucial as it allows for informational synergies between diverse members. The novel concept of D&I branding – firms' public broadcasting of how they value D&I – has been considered a valuable approach to attract and retain diversity and, ultimately, stimulate firm performance. But the state-of-the-art research has established little comprehensive theorizing and empirical evidence of the success of D&I branding. The present project addresses three fundamental research gaps. First, the concept of D&I branding is so novel that there is no validated metric yet assessing firms' D&I branding intensity. By developing and introducing a composite D&I branding measure to the literature, this project improves the conceptual clarity, measurement, and empirical testing of D&I branding. Second, the limited research has revealed competing findings on the success of D&I initiatives, calling for research on moderators. Building on the signaling theory, this project examines how the impact of D&I branding on diversity attraction and retention is moderated by factors related to the authenticity of firms' D&I branding. Third, it has not been studied if and under which contingencies D&I branding will stimulate firm performance through attracting and retaining diversity. Doing so, this project aims to uncover the overall implications of D&I branding, which has important implications for both theory and practice.

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  • Research Project

COVITRU 01/10/2022 - 30/09/2023

Abstract

In the recent past, there has been an erosion of institutional trust which in turn has led governments longing for ways to restore trust in institutions.Yet, there is only little research to guide a comprehensive understanding of trust restoration. COVID-19 sent shockwaves that could have undermined trust further but surprisingly led to citizens rallying behind government institutions. COVID-19 offers an opportunity to nations to take remedial actions that restore decade long withering levels of trust in institutions. Truly interdisciplinary and bringing about theoretical, empirical,methodological and social innovations, COVITRU investigates the relationship between citizen trust in institutions and COVID-19 economic relief measures taken by government institutions in France, Belgium and Netherlands. To achieve that, COVITRU 1) explores and assesses possible statistically significant correlations between citizen's perceived threat to economic security during COVID-19 crisis and surge in levels of trust, 2) finds out whether the surge in institutional trust has been mainly driven by a rally-round-the-flag effect or citizens' satisfaction with economic measures and 3) traces and evaluates any causal mechanisms between evolution of trust and change in relief measures.

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  • Research Project

Industry 4.0 maturity in the Flemish Food Industry: strategic archetypes and development paths 01/09/2022 - 31/08/2027

Abstract

The overall goal of this project is to give Flemish food companies a boost in their Industry 4.0 (I4.0) transformation by developing an innovative I4.0 transformation model with which they can improve their business strategy or develop new business models. This model provides the management of companies with the necessary tools to develop such innovative I4.0 strategy, analyze their current I4.0 maturity, and establish their I4.0 development path. With these new insights, after completion of the PhD, the call for I4.0 guidance from a large group of Flemish food companies can be organized.

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  • Research Project

Entrepreneurial spirit and employability: Towards a future-oriented and agile education portfolio 01/11/2021 - 15/10/2023

Abstract

For the project 'Entrepreneurial Spirit and Employability: Towards a Future-Oriented and Agile Education Portfolio', we will develop an online toolkit aimed at students and student-entrepreneurs. The aim of this toolkit is twofold: (1) to detect potential development areas allowing us to increase a student's entrepreneurial spirit, and (2) to detect the 'red flag' support areas within a student-entrepreneur's entrepreneurial path. The latter allows us to provide tailored support to our student-entrepreneurs. The toolkit will not only enable us to stimulate our students' / student-entrepreneurs' entrepreneurial spirit and entrepreneurial activities, but will also result in a systematic monitoring systems of the most important development and support areas.

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  • Research Project
  • Education Project

The promise and perils of diversity and inclusion management for firm performance. 01/10/2021 - 30/09/2025

Abstract

It has long been recognized that organizations can reap the productive informational benefits of workforce diversity if they can effectively manage their diverse employees. In this project, we want to contribute to the limited research on diversity and inclusion management – that is, all management activities of firms that ensure the diverse perspectives of employees are being valued and used and that everyone feels involved in the firm. We do so by exploring (1) the mechanisms underlying the effects of D&I management on proximal workplace outcomes such as perceived discrimination and inclusion and (2) the moderating factors that influence these mechanisms and, in turn, determine when the impact of D&I management initiatives on these proximal outcomes is positive and helps firm performance. The main goal of this project is to unravel how and when D&I management affects firm performance.

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  • Research Project

Procurement: digital tools and sustainable goals (ProcToGo). 31/12/2020 - 29/06/2023

Abstract

The project develops a microcredential and organizes several workshops in the area of Procurement, Sustainability and New technologies such as Big Data, IoT and Artificial Intelligence. The microcredential must enable students and practitioners to develop capabilities and acquire knowledge to develop careers in procurement and thereby aiming to apply the potential for cost reduction and value innovation, offered by new technologies as well as aiming for sustainable development in collaboration with suppliers. Modern procurement practices will be shared a.o., by studying best practices from real companies.

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  • Research Project
  • Education Project

Relational Creativity: The workshop as a space for building technical, social and creative relations. 01/12/2020 - 30/11/2024

Abstract

The future of fashion will depend on the industry's ability to redefine not just how we produce and consume, but also of how - and why - we create. Creativity is not just a productive ability: it is originally a ritual act, through which the maker can establish a direct and personal relation to technology, the territory, and / or the human community. Our research aims at defining how the school can foster these dynamics, structuring a system of exchanges between the players (student; producer; community), the places (school; laboratory; territory) and the resources (creative; technical; human) involved in the creative act. This structure will be examined through a series of interconnected workshops, seminars and exhibitions - generating hybrid and elastic networks among the creatives, the public community and the industry, of which the school will be the centre and the promoter.

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  • Research Project

Source-based writing in L1, L2 and FL: modelling of successful process characteristics. 01/10/2020 - 30/09/2024

Abstract

Nowadays, writers rarely ever write from scratch. They integrate information from multiple online sources (e.g., reports, articles, blogs, tweets) into a new text that is coherent and relevant. Source-based writing is a complex mental process: writers must compare, contrast and evaluate sources, plan the text, select the relevant information from the sources and add new data, and write the text. The academic research into source-based writing is limited, yet in full development due to its growing professional importance. The existing research is focused primarily on the writing product and writing in the L1 (i.e., dominant language). This research project aims to create a theoretical model that describes source-based writing in the L1 (Dutch), L2 (English) and FL (French, Spanish). We will explore (1) how writers consult digital sources during the writing process, (2) how they integrate input (e.g., content, structure and wording) from those sources in their writing product, and (3) how these processes relate to the quality of the writing product and the writer's working memory and linguistic proficiency. We will do so by: (1) analysing keystroke logging data of about 600 texts written by master's students in Multilingual Professional Communication; (2) analyzing the students' writing products and processes by various plagiarism and linguistic annotation tools; (3) investigating the effect of process feedback on source-based writing via peer-based examples (modelling) in an experimental study.

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  • Research Project

Avoiding repetitive reform injury in the public sector. Can leadership behaviour reduce the damaging effect of repetitive reforms? 01/10/2020 - 30/09/2024

Abstract

In response to today's hectic and complex society, waves of reforms have been implemented in OECD countries to modernize the public sector. This reform appetite has caused many public organizations to be involved in near-endless cycles of reforms. Recent findings indicate that the ambiguity and uncertainty that intense reforms bring about may drastically increase employee work stress. Structural reforms therefore may paradoxically undermine the very performance and adaptability of public sector organizations they seek to improve, a process that has been labelled repetitive reform injury. The question then becomes: how can government reap the benefits of reforms (flexibility, adaptability,…) without negatively affecting employee work stress? Given the continued interest in, and necessity of, reforming public organizations, it is crucial to deepen our understanding on how to avoid repetitive reform injury. This project addresses this question by theorizing and testing the influence of the full-range of leadership behaviors (transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership) on employee work stress in settings of varying reform intensity. The project contributes not only theoretically, but also answers to recent calls for the application of more innovative and rigorous methods.

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  • Research Project

Reinventing Mentoring in Arts Management (REMAM). 01/09/2020 - 31/08/2023

Abstract

The University of Antwerp is currently part of the Erasmus+ project Reinventing Mentoring in Arts Management (KA203-A07E7FB5). The other partners are Teatriakadeemia (Estonia), Creative Mentorship (Serbia), Foundation Nuku (Estonia), Universidad del Pais Vasco (Spain). Cultural management MA programs are facing dualistic demands - on one hand, from potential employers, such as art organizations, nonprofits and governmental institutions, for practical skills and knowledge on the current practices of the art field; and on the other need for analytical skills, capacity to be critical and make transformations. Those programs need to pay more and careful attention to balance the academic content with current management tools in wide spectrum, such as leading skills, accounting, communications and as well as policy development but also adding the multidiscplinary approach preparing student to adapt their skills and competences to many different professional scenarios. In the changing society, it is not enough to know the current practices and ways of doing work, as the work life is changing rapidly due to digitalization, globalization, and use of artificial intelligence in the fields of art and culture. It has become crucial for young professionals to enter the work life with already highly functional networks, field specific expertise and possession of key contacts, besides the academic and transferable competencies. The aim of the project is to create a learning model that allows both development of analytical and academic competences and capturing the current field practices and tools and influence agencies responsible for occupational profiling to highlight the importance of a Mentor as occupation and further advocate for its definition in other partner countries. The project partners co-create a new comprehensive understanding of mentorship as a framework for professional life- long learning as well as part of academic education. The main outcomes of the projects are: 1) mentoring model that enables both career building support and development of practical knowledge and skills for students as well as allows lifelong learning for practitioners through mutually befitting interactions. 2) Interactive PC/mobile app guiding and informing stakeholder interested in becoming mentors that will also serve as matching platform between mentors and mentees. 3) Policy informing paper putting together suggestion for formulating professional standard and occupational profile of Mentor in CCI to be further disseminated across member states. The model and app will be made available in European context through networks and open sharing platforms and other networks.

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  • Research Project
  • Education Project

Content-related expert advise for the UNIZO-AMS Mastercall II project "Ambition in Entrepreneurship" 01/07/2020 - 30/06/2024

Abstract

Entrepreneurship is the driver of economic progress. Today's champions – Amazon, Apple, Google, Facebook, et cetera – all started as small-scaled projects. Unfortunately, European countries, including the Flanders region, lag behind. Small-scaled entrepreneurial projects experience difficulties in their further development and growth. The new champions come from North-America or Southeast-Asia, not from Europe. This has to change. For this, the Flemish government launched a large-scaled and ambitious program (2016-2020) to coach SMEs and entrepreneurs in their further development. Within this program, UNIZO and Antwerp Management School (AMS) developed a project called "Road to Growth" (Ambition in Entrepreneurship). UNIZO and AMS are ambitious in their goal to provide a unique and effective coaching program to support ambitious Flemish entrepreneurs. Hundreds ambitious entrepreneurs will, thanks to the support of UNIZO/AMS, have developed their company. A tailor-made coaching program provides the necessary support to do so.

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  • Research Project

On the malleability of fairness norms: the role of social values, wise reasoning, power asymmetry, and inter-group conflict. 01/01/2020 - 31/12/2023

Abstract

Understanding the roots of fairness is crucial to sustain democracy, human well-being, and economic systems. An abundance of research has shown that fairness preferences are malleable, influenced by dispositional (traits) and contextual (state) factors. Mostly, these two approaches are studied independently. We propose to integrate the trait- and state- approach in an interdisciplinary study that addresses how, when, and for whom, context is likely to affect fairness preferences and behavior. We will conduct behavioral- and neuro-imaging experiments to test how power asymmetry and inter-group conflict alter fairness judgments and decisions depending on values and reasoning capacity. We further investigate how neural networks of individuals with different social value orientations change when making decisions in contexts that vary with respect to power asymmetry and inte ersonal conflict. Together these experiments will reveal why some people are more prone to change their fairness norms in function of their power position and the level of conflict. Given that many personal and economic transactions are embedded in hierarchical, fragmented, or competing groups, understanding how power and conflict can strengthen or compromise fairness may have important societal implications.

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  • Research Project

Organization- and management science 01/10/2019 - 30/09/2024

Abstract

Organizations need to continuously adapt in response to evolving circumstances and demands (Aguilera, 2018). One way to make organizations more responsive to their external environment is to drastically alter the organizational structure (for example, through mergers, acquisitions, splittings, or changes of task) and, thus, the way an organization functions. These incentives for change operate in both the private and public sector. The pace at which such structural changes are introduced has increased significantly over the last decade, leaving less or no recuperation time for organizations and their employees (Rees and Rumbles, 2012). The notion that change is an exceptional episode in an organization's lifetime (Pettigrew and Whipp, 1991) is no longer valid; organizations experience intense, unwavering sequences of structural changes (Brunsson, 2009). Corporate governance practices and systems can facilitate the successful implementation of these changes, for instance, by supporting and creating openness in decision-making processes. However, each single structural change inherently threatens the transparency of and participation in decision-making processes. As organizational psychology literature has illustrated (e.g., threat-rigidity theory; Seo and Hill, 2005), structural changes are likely to introduce a great deal of uncertainty and anxiety, putting strain on organizations and their employees. This can lead employees to stick to established work procedures and to avoid new information that does not fit well with their established mode of thinking—thus directly affecting decision-making processes. Moreover, managers in various echelons of an organization will have a tendency to centralize decision-making in order to mitigate a perceived 'crisis' as swiftly as possible. These symptoms are expected to be reduced when organizations and employees are given time to recover from a structural change. However, the few studies on change sequences (e.g., Rafferty and Griffin, 2006) argue that intense structural change sequences can impede such a gradual recovery. This will, in turn, paralyze the working of an entire organization, threatening organizational adaptability (e.g., McMurray, 2010). Nevertheless, to date, little is known about how decision-making processes evolve in the light of continuous structural changes and how this impacts the adaptability of an organization. This research examines the effect of intense structural change sequences on innovation and organizational performance through their impact on decision-making processes while controlling for corporate governance structures. It relies on a mixture of small-N qualitative and large-N quantitative analysis on both private and public organizations. Because of its innovative character, the results will be highly informative to researchers in organization and management sciences, organizational psychology, innovation, and public management.

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  • Research Project

The motivational drivers of nascent SME internationalization. 01/10/2019 - 30/09/2023

Abstract

Internationalization of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) may contribute greatly to the welfare of a country. Yet, it is unclear why some SMEs (successfully) internationalize whereas others stay domestic. In this project, we aim to better understand which motivational drivers explain whether an entrepreneur aspires and expects internationalization, and whether (s)he is able to actually reach these goals. Does, for example, an entrepreneur who wants to have impact on others (typically for those scoring low on the power motive) have higher internationalization aspirations? We explicitly recognize the existence of two motivational systems: An explicit and an implicit one. The implicit system operates outside of conscious awareness and control, and the explicit one functions at a conscious level. Besides the impact of personality aspects, we also attribute attention to firm and environmental characteristics. As such, we aim to better understand the integrated 'fit' configurations of implicit / explicit personality profiles and environmental characteristics leading to actual internationalization behavior (and subsequent international performance). We execute computer-led Implicit Association Tests and tailor-made surveys, and adopt secondary information from existing databases to allow us to unravel the factors influencing an SME's decision to internationalize, and its internationalization behavior.

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  • Research Project

Are structural changes paradoxically undermining organizational adaptability? A study to the impact of continuous structural changes on decision-making within organizations. 01/10/2019 - 30/09/2023

Abstract

This BOF funded project will qualitatively investigate (a) the short term and (b) the long term impact of extensive structural changes on decision-making processes within organizations. Two measurement point will be applied, not only allowing to assess the long-term impact, but also to improve causal inference.

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  • Research Project

Credit for the Libraries in Social and Human Sciences (Faculty of Business and Economics). 01/01/2019 - 31/12/2022

Abstract

This project represents a research contract awarded by the University of Antwerp. The supervisor provides the Antwerp University research mentioned in the title of the project under the conditions stipulated by the university.

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  • Research Project

Smart ports entrepreneurial ecosystem development (SPEED). 01/01/2019 - 30/12/2022

Abstract

With increasing global competitive pressures, Western European ports have to be more efficient or more innovative to remain competitive. Especially in large and complex port environments there are numerous opportunities for efficiency gains in the logistic chain. Simultaneously, new advances in data science and Internet of Things (IoT) technologies are starting to enable more efficient ways of communicating and of integrating entire supply chains. In particular high-tech start-ups and SMEs are leading the way in these technological developments. Currently, port environments do not yet fully reap the advantages from data science / IoT technologies, and high-tech start-ups / SMEs often struggle with the professionalization of their technological ideas and business activities. As a result, the performance potential of the Western European ports is hampered, as well as the full development potential of high-tech start-ups and SMEs and their subsequent economic contribution. This project aims to develop and support the growth of a nascent connected port solutions ecosystem backed by data science and IoT technologies. Bottom-up initiatives are forming around this common goal, mainly among maritime logistics players, port authorities and large IT providers. The current objective is to also connect to and develop a community of ambitious data science entrepreneurs (start-ups and SMEs), data science & maritime experts and knowledge centers. As such, the project aims to translate innovations from both technologies into a connected and multi-modal port environment and generate more efficient communication and logistical streams through dedicated data-based solutions. On top of this, the project aims to reap the full business potential of high-tech start-ups and SMEs, professionalize their business activities and increase their overall (international) performance. The project has three main outputs: (1) Mobilizing a network connecting 2 Seas region data science high-tech start-ups and SMEs, data science and maritime experts and knowledge centers, and port stakeholders, to the benefit of the Western European ports and port stakeholders in need of data science solutions, (2) Building a common approach to facilitate the development of data science applications for port logistics problems, to the benefit of the Western European ports and port stakeholders, and (3) Building a common approach to develop and improve the technical value delivering, commercialisation capacities and professionalization of the smart port entrepreneurs and for the adoption of smart port solutions, to the benefit of (internationalizing) high-tech start-ups and SMEs, and port application users.

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  • Research Project

Past projects

Development of a web environment to store and analyse keystroke logged copy-task data. 01/07/2021 - 31/12/2021

Abstract

We aim to create a user friendly web environment to make the collection and fine grained analysis of sentence copying data, via the Inputlog copy task, easily available to the educational research community.

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  • Research Project

Benchmark research on international cultural policy in the context of the Flemish Broad Review. 15/05/2021 - 15/07/2021

Abstract

Since the St. Michiels Agreements of 1993, Flanders has been authorized to conduct an autonomous international cultural policy and conclude treaties. Initially, Prime Minister van den Brande was responsible for the ICP. He concluded various treaties (about 40) with foreign countries. In order to increase the cultural image of Flanders, he also installed the system of cultural ambassadors. When the purple coalition took office in 1999, it was decided to transfer the budget of the cultural ambassadors to the Culture Department. The ICP was seen as an extension of the Flemish cultural policy. However, the question still remains who should direct the international cultural policy: is it the international dimension of the Flemish cultural policy or is it part of the cultural diplomacy that is mainly conducted by Foreign office. The policy framework is determined at sectoral level (vision memorandum/decree/funds) and at an overarching level via various VR communications as far as CJM is concerned. The policy framework for cultural diplomacy is determined by DKBUZA. The budgetary framework at CJM experienced a strong increase in the period 1999-2009 followed by a sharp decrease in the period 2009-2020. The period of growth was accompanied by a revision of the instruments, for the contraction period the cheese slicing method was mainly used. Due to successive savings, due to ongoing international commitments and the choice to outsource an important part of the budget for sector support and promotion to funds and support centers, the current instrument policy at CJM is static, not very manageable and there is little room for new initiatives. develop. Reassessment and renewal is necessary in order to be able to continue to operate a high-performance and pertinent UCI. This is where the relevance of this research lies. The research question is as follows: What can we learn from a benchmark about the policy and instruments of international cultural policy abroad? The aim is to use an international benchmark study to arrive at a framework in which the International Cultural Policy can be clearly and efficiently analysed, tested and evaluated. It is important that the government and semi-government framework and the instruments (models) of the ICP are adequately described. In order to visualize this in an orderly manner, a matrix will be obtained with Cultural diplomacy/public diplomacy on the one side and cultural relations/international cultural policy (=BUZA <-> CJM) on the other side and on the other side. the Y-axis from Government to Workfield (=leading vs follow the actor). This research will make it possible to view (objectify) the functioning of the Flemish ICP from a distance and thus gain a better picture of the bottlenecks and opportunities. - Objectives and priorities: What are general and more specific objectives of the ICB? Which priorities are used? - Structure: Is the ICB a separate policy line or is it part of cultural policy/BUZA policy? Where is international cultural policy directed? Which departments/ ministries or agencies are involved? Is there a separate policy on international networks? - Instruments: What is the repertoire of performance instruments? - Coherence and complementarity: How is EU policy aligned? How does coordination and coherence monitoring between government actors take place? - Evaluation: How do they measure the impact of the policies and instruments? Effect measurement of Cultural attaches eg?

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  • Research Project

Research into the collaboration between private collectors/private collection management institutions and (semi)public cultural heritage institutions in Flanders. 01/05/2021 - 31/05/2022

Abstract

Flanders has a large number of private collectors with impressive art collections with pieces that are part of our collective heritage. Worldwide, Flanders has the highest concentration of private collectors. In the past, these collectors often took on a role as lenders or donors in relation to the (semi-)public cultural heritage institutions. They have proven to be a valuable partner for museums through various collaborations. Some fine historical examples of this can be found in the recently published book Giving as culture: Donations to the KMSKA by Leen de Jong or the publications of Ulrike Müller, researcher at the Mayer van Den Bergh museum ("The phenomenon of collecting in the nineteenth century to the present day, and on the (changing) position of the private collector in the public sphere"). In recent decades, however, there has been a remarkable evolution in the landscape of collaborations between private collectors and public institutions. For example, private collectors who have an impressive collection of museum size and of great (art-historical) importance are increasingly setting up their own structure, including exhibition spaces. They present their collection there under their own name. It is in this context that the CJM department wishes to gain more insight into the current collaborations between private collectors/private collection management institutions and (semi-)public cultural heritage organizations in Flanders. In Minister Jambon's Policy Document on Culture (2019-2024), he also refers to the impact of the Top Pieces Decree on the changing relationship between private collectors and public museums: "In 2020, in implementation of the Coalition Agreement and in consultation with the Top Pieces Council, I want to examine how we can develop collaborations with important private collections in Flanders (RA, p. 126). Interested collectors should be given the opportunity via a cooperation protocol to keep their collections in Flanders for a longer period of time and to share them with the public without this encumbering their property rights. In addition, consultation and collaboration with private collectors can also be included in the Strategic Vision Document on Cultural Heritage to encourage the sector to focus on this." To do this, there is a need for an up-to-date state of affairs that brings together and clearly presents the different views, experiences with and practices surrounding such collaborations. The aim of this research is therefore to map the current state of affairs and to identify the needs of both private collectors and (semi-)public institutions in the cultural heritage sector. This is based on the following problem statement: Which collaborations already exist and which are possible collaboration models between private collectors/private collection-managing institutions and (semi-)public cultural heritage organisations? What needs are experienced by both parties within the current framework? In doing so, insight must be gained into existing and possible collaborations on three levels: substantive, legal and ethical

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  • Research Project

An impact research on fashion in Antwerp at the occasion of the reopening of the fashion museum 01/05/2021 - 28/02/2022

Abstract

At the occasion of the reopening of the fashion museum in Antwerp, the fashion museum wants to know what is the impact of the events that they will organize and of fashion as a whole on the Antwerp ecosystem (economically, socially and symbolic)

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  • Research Project

Workforce diversity as enabler for organizational performance: (when) does inclusive HRM help or hurt? 01/04/2021 - 31/03/2022

Abstract

Organizational workforces have never been more diverse in terms of age, gender, race, ethnicity, migration background and other demographics. Because differences influence how employees interact and perform, workforce diversity is one of the most topical and important challenges facing organizations today. Knowledge on how firms can productively deal with workforce diversity is fundamental for the future prosperity of firms and economies overall. Our present challenging context makes successfully managed workplace diversity even more important than ever, as organizations that can use diversity as enabler of firm performance will likely emerge stronger from the ongoing pandemic crisis. Data is needed in order to study diversity and inclusion in organizations and the successful management thereof. This BOF Small Project (Klein Project) implies the start of a large-scale longitudinal, multi-source data collection of Belgian organizations, based on four data sources: (1) organization- and employee-level data from SDWorx; (2) financial information retrieved from the annual reports published in Bel-first; (3) questionnaire data from HR directors; and (4) a website-based content analysis. By updating the data annually, I will build a longitudinal, multi-source (employee-, manager-, and organizational-level) data warehouse of 2,500 organizations that allows for future research projects on a broad range of study questions that also go beyond the focus on diversity and inclusion.

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  • Research Project

Research price elasticity KMSKA. 01/04/2021 - 15/06/2021

Abstract

The Royal Museum of Fine Arts Antwerp plans to reopen its doors to the general public after a renovation of more than ten years. In the run-up to this, the museum wants to develop a well-founded pricing strategy. To this end, the museum wants to survey the Flemish population about the willingness to pay for the museum at various levels.

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  • Research Project

Financing instruments for cultural and youth infrastructure with supralocal importance. 17/02/2021 - 30/09/2021

Abstract

Since 1998, the Cultural Infrastructure Fund (FoCI) has managed the Flemish Community's own cultural and youth accommodations and also grants investment subsidies for large infrastructure works of high cultural importance, but also for sectoral cultural and youth infrastructure of supralocal importance. To support the cultural and youth infrastructure of supralocal importance, the same fund also provides loans for photovoltaic installations to cultural and youth organisations. The grounds for granting such subsidies can be found in the Decree of the Flemish Government regarding the granting of investment subsidies for cultural infrastructure with supralocal importance, better known as the FoCI regulations. However, these regulations are still valid until 2021 and the Flemish Government is therefore working on a successor. In this context, the CJM department wishes to gain insight into the strengths and weaknesses of the existing forms of financing (after all, the current regulations only apply one way to invest in cultural and youth infrastructure: by granting a one-off investment subsidy based on a call) and the potential of other possible financing mechanisms (other subsidy schemes, leasing, guarantees, concessions, etc.) that the Flemish government could offer to various actors who wish to start initiatives for the realization of cultural and youth infrastructure. What is the applicability of these mechanisms and is there sufficient support for them? The aim of this research is therefore twofold. On the one hand, an overview will be made and a thorough evaluation of the existing financing instruments will take place. The evaluation is initially based on a consultation with the supralocal culture and youth sector and stakeholders and on an analysis of social trends. The BVR, which currently forms the legal basis for granting the investment subsidies, is currently already being examined in terms of content. In this context, steps were already taken in October 2020. In preparation of the future regulations with clear investment priorities, clear terminology and a clear procedure, the CJM Department, together with IDEA Consult, already organized a survey of the culture and youth sector. The aim of the survey was to evaluate the current way of working and to gain a better insight into the infrastructure needs and wishes of operations that qualify for investment subsidies. The results of this will certainly be included in the research. On the other hand, it is being investigated which other financing mechanisms can potentially be used to support supralocal culture and youth infrastructure. It will be examined which instruments are used in other sectors and international comparisons will also be made. Such research has already been undertaken by KPMG for the Sports Infrastructure and will therefore be inspiring for the current research. The applicability of the existing and proposed new financing instruments is analyzed from different points of view. This from the Flemish government as well as from the sectors and local authorities. A scoring system with weighting will be used in order to subsequently make a ranking of the applicability of all proposed mechanisms for the Flemish government. This also includes current investment mechanisms. Finally, the research results in a number of concrete policy recommendations, formulated to remedy gaps in the current forms of financing, and to define the possible deployability of other forms of financing. We also want to use the recommendations to provide an answer to the following questions: How can the current subsidy mechanism be optimised? How can this be strengthened by effective and efficient financing through a spectrum of financing forms, and what policy framework is needed for this? What role can government play in each of these new funding mechanisms?

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  • Research Project

Scientific Chair Sustainable Insurance. 01/01/2021 - 31/12/2021

Abstract

The Ageas chair on sustainable insurance aims to develop a deeper understanding of what sustainable insurance is about. This goes from product level (how to judge the sustainable impact of insurance products) to the asset side of the company: what is sustainable investment and how to better integrate ESG info into asset allocation. The chair will run for 4 years.

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  • Research Project

Plain language for financial content: Assessing the impact of training on students' revisions and readers' comprehension (PLanTra). 01/08/2020 - 31/07/2022

Abstract

With the responsibility for financial decisions shifting from institutions to individuals, the ability to understand financial information (known as 'financial literacy') is paramount. Having reduced financial literacy results in higher risk of over-indebtedness, and in reduced ability to manage one's wealth. Text simplification, involving the use of plain language, is one of the strategies adopted to meet the needs of low-literacy readers. The comprehensibility of financial texts has received attention at the European level. An action plan developed as part of the EU policy on consumer financial services lists opaque terms and conditions among the concerns raised by customers when conducting cross-border shopping. Despite plain language efforts, the comprehensibility of financial content has not been increasing consistently. Scholars have therefore emphasised the need to train business (communication) students in text simplification and provided resources to that end. There is, however, lack of empirical evidence on the benefits (or lack thereof) of plain language training. This project aims to address this research gap by investigating the impact of plain language training on: (i) how financial texts are simplified by business students; and (ii) the resulting comprehensibility of simplified financial texts among lay readers with different levels of financial literacy. To do so, I will conduct two experimental studies. For the first study, focusing on the simplification process, I will use keystroke logging, retrospective interviews, and screen recording. For the second study, dealing with the comprehensibility of financial content, I will use multiple-choice questions. This project can identify simplification-oriented revisions that are implemented by business students and that are beneficial for comprehension of financial content. Ultimately, these findings can guide financial institutions in their efforts to meet the needs of readers with low financial literacy.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Project website

Project type(s)

  • Research Project

Business model exercise and survey for amateur arts organization "Danspunt" 01/07/2020 - 30/11/2020

Abstract

Danspunt publishes the DANST magazine four times a year. In 2018, Danspunt had a quantitative and qualitative market research carried out with regard to the magazine. In 2020 Danspunt wants to fine-tune the DANST business model. The magazine was mainly distributed to their members, but anyone with a passion for dance could subscribe. Since the 2018 survey, the magazine has continued to be distributed free of charge through AEOLUS. Dance schools can also "become friends of DANST". For 150 euros they receive a box of magazines that are distributed among the dancers. They have currently recruited five "friends" this way. But do people actually read it? How can this reach be bigger? This is difficult to measure via the AEOLUS system. Is this the ideal business model? Danspunt's policy on magazines has changed: Since 2018, they have made a distinction between communication with a newsletter and a professional magazine. They want to do an impact measurement on what has changed since 2018. After all, the 2018 research showed that the magazine lacked a clear profile and did not have a defined target audience. It was aimed at dance enthusiasts as well as professionals and amateur dancers. After the investigation, Danspunt tried to reprofile the magazine, mainly targeting amateur dancers and dance enthusiasts. Is this audience also reached and how do they perceive the magazine now? In 2018 it also appeared that the respondents preferred to read interviews in the paper magazine. There is now more focus on that. How does the readership experience this content now? Is it of high quality and does it satisfy them? From previous research it became clear that a new business model needs to be devised for DANST. First and foremost, the magazine's function must be considered: is it agenda-setting, reflective, or does it mainly want to provide a forum for new creations by choreographers or professional dancers? Some choices have already been made about this, but this can be further refined by means of a new reader survey and strategic business model exercise.

Researcher(s)

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Project type(s)

  • Research Project

Repetitive Reform Injury: Exploring the usefulness of biomarkers to examine unintended side-effects of continuous governmental restructuring. 01/04/2020 - 31/03/2021

Abstract

Inspired by advancements in neuroendocrinology, this funding proposal aims at supporting a pilot study on the usefulness of hair cortisol concentration (HCC) analysis for understanding the effect of intense change sequences on civil servants.

Researcher(s)

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Project type(s)

  • Research Project

Determinants of fairness and inequity aversion in leader-follower relationships: The role of incentives, norms, and social value orientation. 01/11/2019 - 31/10/2021

Abstract

The project investigates how fairness and inequity aversion, two human universals with well-known effects on economic behavior, are subject to change within the hierarchy of a leader-follower relationship. Following identity theory, we propose that adopting the role of leader or follower induces a norm transformation that decreases the fairness concerns of the leader and increases the tolerance of the follower. We propose a set of behavioral experiments to first test (1) to what extent priming a leader/follower identity alters fairness considerations and inequity aversion, and (2) how the identity shift resulting from priming leader/follower roles is moderated by the experienced power asymmetry and personality differences. Next, we explore (3) if the changes in fairness considerations and inequity aversion can in part be explained by the actions of the neurohormone oxytocin, given its known role in regulating mammalian social behavior. Finally (4), we zoom in on different types of followers and investigate how their inequity aversion and with it their physical arousal respond to leaders with differing ethical principles. Gaining insights into the factors that substantiate the behavioral changes elicited by a leader/follower identity shift, and in the reasons why some followers comply while others resist, will help us to better understand why, and how, social hierarchies are sustainable.

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Project type(s)

  • Research Project

Research about the feasibility of the Tax Shelter in the museumsector 15/04/2019 - 15/07/2019

Abstract

COM Flanders and the Flemish Museum Association wish to find out what the pros and cons are of introducing a possible tax shelter in the museum sector. Given the success of the tax shelter in the film sector and the performing arts, they would like to see what the opportunities are for the museums.

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  • Research Project

SWOT analysis of the arts and cultural sector in the city of Antwerp. 01/04/2019 - 30/04/2019

Abstract

Within the framework of its long-term vision 2030, the city of Antwerp wants to conduct an investigation into the strengths and weaknesses of the cultural sector in Antwerp. For this purpose there will be conducted some focus groups.

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Project type(s)

  • Research Project

Cultural entrepreneurship. A mapping of entrepreneurship and financing in the Flemish cultural sector. 01/12/2018 - 30/04/2019

Abstract

In order to realize his mission and his core activities "Cultuurloket" commanded a research about entrepreneurship within and the financing of culture in Flanders. With this research Cultuurloket wants to get an overview of the knowledge and competences that are actually present in the cultural sector in Flanders. Cultuurloket also wants to know what are the needs. Therefore it is essential to know why people are professional entrepreneurial.

Researcher(s)

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Project type(s)

  • Research Project

Innovative online learning environments: using business case studies in higher education (E3Cases). 01/11/2018 - 31/08/2021

Abstract

The objective of this project is to contribute significantly to the horizontal EC priority of Higher Education. The priority is expressed as "innovation, developing, implementing and testing the effectiveness of approaches to promote creativity, entrepreneurial thinking and skills." In higher Education (HE) case based teaching has become a common practice especially in business schools and universities. By now a whole industry has developed that designs, writes, and distributes teaching cases around the globe. However, concerns have been raised with regard to the level of didactic standards and their consideration in the design, teaching, and evaluation of business cases for case based teaching. In order to explore these concerns, this project develops 12 didactically designed HE business cases. We aim to evaluate their effectiveness in the classroom setting, and, based on this develop a manual on how to design and teach business cases along high didactic standards and through the use of an online planning guide for digital case teaching.

Researcher(s)

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Project website

Project type(s)

  • Research Project
  • Education Project

Cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease: motoric, cognitive and linguistic aspects of sentence production 01/10/2018 - 28/02/2022

Abstract

Research has shown that Alzheimer (AD) patients manifest deterioration in language production. The current (diagnostic) instruments for language assessment (in general, as well as in relation to dementia) largely focus on product measures, such as phrase length and number of errors. However, the processes leading to spoken and written text production provide insight into language ability as well. This research project aims to develop valid sentence production tasks that enable researchers and clinicians to adequately characterize the longitudinal decline of on-line written language production in AD. These aims will be addressed in three consecutive studies: 1. an exploratory study, 2. a cross-sectional study, and 3. a longitudinal study. Since findings from previous research indicate the need for a screening task that assesses multiple components of language, we will combine writing tasks that focus on motor (physical typing skills), cognitive (mind) and linguistic (language) aspects. Therefore, during an exploratory study we aim to develop a number of highly controlled sentence production tasks that assess a set of predefined cognitive and linguistic process aspects. Exploratory study In the exploratory study, we aim to initially develop 60 picture combination cards; groups of separate pictures that elicit a written sentence. During the experiment, participants are instructed to include the objects depicted when producing a sentence and to link them with a verb that fits the situation. The observation method used is keystroke logging via the in-house developed tool Inputlog, which is non-intrusive, time-saving, and hence cost-reducing, when compared to other tools or techniques. By using validated pictures we can easily predetermine the words participants will probably use when producing a sentence and hence monitor specific word characteristics that influence cognitive pauses. Recent explorations on related linguistic data proved the discriminatory power of determiners, nouns, verbs (and adjectives) for distinguishing between participant groups. Therefore, these word categories will be the main focus of the elicited sentences. Cross-sectional and longitudinal study Based on the findings of the exploratory study, the number of picture combination cards needed (via statistical techniques like Generalizability and Design study) will be reduced to an optimal minimum. In the experimental cross-sectional study patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), mild AD and a healthy control group will be involved. The participants will be asked to perform a brief copy task (motor and typing skills) and to produce sentences (cognitive and linguistic skills) based on randomly selected picture combination cards. Finally, in the longitudinal study, the cross-sectional study will be replicated after six and twelve months in order to document the (potential) cognitive decline. We will opt for mixed effects models in which the random effects of subjects, sentences and words are modeled. A secondary goal of this research project is to further automatize data analysis and report generation allowing clinicians to interpret the data instantly. Since we trigger predefined nouns, verbs and adjectives in our study, we should be able to further automatize the analysis and reporting via Inputlog.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Project type(s)

  • Research Project

Workforce age diversity: Towards an inclusive understanding of its implications and successful management. 01/10/2018 - 30/09/2021

Abstract

Organizations are challenged by radical changes in their demographic landscape. Because populations are ageing and people retire later, workforce age diversity is higher than ever and still on the rise. Never before had so many different ages worked together, all with other values, needs, knowledge and experience. What are the implications of workforce age diversity and how can firms manage them? This is the encompassing question guiding this project, as productively dealing with age-diverse workforces is necessary for the future prosperity of firms and economies overall. Thus far, research has established that workforce age diversity can have both positive and negative effects on firm performance. However, there is little understanding of how and when the opposite effects come about. As a result, it is unclear how firms can capitalize on the benefits and avoid the drawbacks of age diversity. We take four steps to better understand the implications and successful management of organizational age diversity. First, we uncover the key intergenerational mechanisms underlying the performance effects of age diversity. Second, we examine the multilevel effects of workforce age diversity, proposing the effects depend on firms' work structure (who works with whom?). Third, we investigate how employees' perceptions of age diversity influence these effects. Fourth, we study the success of age-inclusive management in managing workforce age diversity.

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Project type(s)

  • Research Project

Impact study. 01/08/2018 - 31/12/2018

Abstract

This study has a double goal. 1/ building an argumentation that illustrates why the rule of origin principle should be applied to Antwerp related to diamonds and diamond trade. Advanced trade analysis is needed to uncover and visualize the crucial role of Antwerp in this sector. 2/ calculating the economic impact of the Antwerp diamond sector.

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Project type(s)

  • Research Project

SRI research advice. 01/07/2018 - 30/12/2018

Abstract

In cooperation with Eurosif (European Sustainable Investment and Finance association), the overarching organisation of sustainable investment and finance associations, we collect and process data on sustainable investment for Europe. This results in the EUROSIF2018 report on sustainable investment. In a second part of the project we analyse the Eurosif data gathering process and suggests ways to improve the survey for the next edition.

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Project website

Project type(s)

  • Research Project

Quantitative and qualitative market research for the magazine Danspunt. 01/07/2018 - 31/10/2018

Abstract

Danspunt, the support center for the amateur Dance in Flanders, wishes to conduct a market research into the need for a paper and / or digital magazine about dance in Flanders. Questions that are addressed here are: what is the target audience? What does the target audience want to read? And on what carrier? To this end, a quantitative and qualitative study will be carried out.

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Project type(s)

  • Research Project

Market research into the non-profit organization - The Low Countries, Ons Erfdeel and Septentrion - in preparation for the launch of the digital, multilingual online platform. 01/07/2018 - 30/09/2018

Abstract

Ons Erfdeel commanded a research about the needs of the readers of the non-profit organizations - The Low Countries, Ons Erfdeel and Septentrion - in preparation for the launch of the digital, multilingual online platform, for information, opinion, reflection and criticism about the Low lands.

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Project type(s)

  • Research Project

Cultural Leadership in the Low Countries 01/04/2018 - 30/09/2021

Abstract

LinC Lage Landen is a mixed Flemish-Dutch program in which leadership in Culture is stimulated. Three dimensions are discussed here: how can leaders respond to this volatile, unpredictable world? In what way can leadership take shape within cultural organizations? And what about the personal leadership?

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  • Research Project

Research in the field of cultural management. 01/01/2018 - 31/12/2021

Abstract

Hand gift from Mr Thomas Leysen to the Cultuurmanagement Fund for the organization of an annual conference, a prize for cultural entrepreneurship, a thesis prize, an autumn lecture and research into cultural governance in Flanders

Researcher(s)

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Project type(s)

  • Research Project
  • Education Project

From research to commercialisation in an entrepreneurial university: Development of pre-incubation structures for the University of Antwerp 01/01/2018 - 30/06/2019

Abstract

The outspoken ambition of the University of Antwerp to create value for society is translated in this project to the ambition to become an entrepreneurial university. In order to achieve this ambition the University of Antwerp is committed to reinforce the different actors within the university in their endeavours to translate their research results, knowledge and expertise to society as a whole. There is a clear need for the development and offering of state-of-the-art pre-incubation services at the University of Antwerp. A pre-incubator offers a protecting environment in which entrepreneurial ideas can be tested on their market potential. The ambition of the University of Antwerp to create value for society as an entrepreneurial university can only be achieved through its unceasing support of its commercialisation processes of research knowledge and expertise, while safeguarding its basic values of academic fundamental research. To close the gap between scientific research output on the one hand and sustainable commercialisation on the other hand, and the survival of the so-called 'valley of death', pre-incubation facilities, like insights in opportunity and market potential detection and IP knowledge, should be installed or reinforced to allow researchers to test and evaluate the commercial potential of their research output in a protecting environment. Moreover, the TRL levels will be increased indirectly, which is a pre-requisite of support programs for scientific research (eg. Horizon 2020, VLAIO,…). An increase of the TRL level equally leads to lowering the threshold for business and industry (and related investors) as such reinforcing the commercialisation potential of the research. This project aims to develop five pilot pre-incubation structures for target disciplines (sustainable chemistry, logistics, health, product development and social innovation). These pilot cases were selected based on the 'Beleidsvisie 2016-2020' and the research spearheads of the University of Antwerp. In the deployment of the pilot cases special attention will be paid to the clear fit with the existing incubation and techtransfer activities of the University of Antwerp. In the same line of reasoning the pre-incubation structures will be embedded in the entrepreneurial ecosystems of the five targeted disciplines. Addressing the needs and barriers of the researchers is a central point of attention. The short term result is a minimum viable product for pre-incubation services for the targeted disciplines. At the same time, our results will provide a blueprint for the development of pre-incubation services for other disciplines in the long term. By safeguarding the embeddedness of pre-incubation structures and optimal fit with existing initiatives within the University of Antwerp as well as with its entrepreneurial ecosystem stakeholders a leverage is created to society as a whole.

Researcher(s)

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Project type(s)

  • Research Project

Determinants of fairness and inequity aversion in leader-follower relationships: the role of incentives, norms, and social value orientation. 01/10/2017 - 30/09/2021

Abstract

Universal principles of fairness and inequity aversion play an important role in leader-follower relationships. We experimentally study decision-making of leaders (fairness) and followers (inequity aversion) by unraveling the interactive effects of incentives, leader/follower role, and social value orientation. Behavioral and hormonal studies will identify the biological mechanisms accounting for the variability in fairness and inequity aversion.

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Project website

Project type(s)

  • Research Project

Road to Growth. 01/10/2017 - 30/05/2020

Abstract

Entrepreneurship is the driver of economic progress. Today's champions – Amazon, Apple, Google, Facebook, et cetera – all started as small-scaled projects. Unfortunately, European countries, including the Flanders region, lag behind. Small-scaled entrepreneurial projects experience difficulties in their further development and growth. The new champions come from North-America or Southeast-Asia, not from Europe. This has to change. For this, the Flemish government launched a large-scaled and ambitious program (2016-2020) to coach SMEs and entrepreneurs in their further development. Within this program, UNIZO and Antwerp Management School (AMS) developed a project called "Road to Growth" (Ambition in Entrepreneurship). UNIZO and AMS are ambitious in their goal to provide a unique and effective coaching program to support ambitious Flemish entrepreneurs. By 2020, hundreds ambitious entrepreneurs will, thanks to the support of UNIZO/AMS, have developed their company. A tailor-made coaching program provides the necessary support to do so.

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Project type(s)

  • Research Project

BNP Paribas Fortis Chair Ethics & Finance. 01/09/2017 - 31/08/2022

Abstract

Today we witness a rapid transition towards a more sustainable economy. Long term strategies by government institutions as well as private business all point in this direction. Finance is a keystone in this transition movement. It assists governments and companies in their changeover effort and guides institutional as well as retail investors in their search for sustainable investment. We witness rapid growth in the field of sustainable investment yet when it comes to research that situates itself at the nexus between sustainability and finance there is little to show for in the Belgian context. This chair aims to fill this void and accompany financial institutions on their drive towards sustainability. In order to attain this leading goal the chair will : • Conduct fundamental and more applied research on sustainable investment, in cooperation with other academic partners as well as the chair partner • Share research insights with investors, students and the general public alike through presentations and online material • Increase societal awareness about sustainable finance through external presence

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  • Research Project

Evaluation of the audience develeopment of the Flemish Audiovisual Fund. 01/07/2017 - 02/10/2017

Abstract

This research wants to evaluate the working of the audience development service of the Flemish Audiovisual Fund. How this working is evaluated by the different stakeholders? And which aspects can be improved.

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Project type(s)

  • Research Project

Trading-off ideological purity vs. pragmatism: Upper echelons and the strategic management of an organization's ideological template in Islamic banking, 2002-2016. 01/01/2017 - 31/12/2020

Abstract

An essential feature of our era is that increasingly competition between organizations is not only about resources but also about ideology, which often goes hand in hand with the emergence of oppositional institutional logics that compete for dominance (in this setting conventional vs. Islamic banking). What is currently missing in the literature are studies that recognize that ideological competition in a world of competing logics is of strategic importance for organizations because the choices that an organization makes to position itself in ideological space affect its very identity with far-reaching consequences for its fate. Such choices often relate to the strategic trade-off between ideological purity vs. pragmatism and hybridization. Unfortunately, the strategic management of an organization's ideological template – its ideologically informed organizing principles and practices --, and the role of the dominant coalition (or so-called Upper Echelon) in shaping it have received scant attention. We try to fill this gap focusing on a fascinating setting, i.e. Islamic banking (in the period 2002-2016) and propose a research project that examines the way in which Islamic banks solve this strategic trade-off in a set of original but related quantitative and qualitative studies.

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Project type(s)

  • Research Project

Research about the opening hours and the price of the Museum Foundation (Museum of Photography, Fashion Museum and DIVA) 01/01/2017 - 31/12/2017

Abstract

At the occasion of the installation of the new Museum Foundation, wants the Province of Antwerp to investigate the policy around diversity within the 3 museums. They ask the researchers to develop a diversity monitor to evaluate and monitor their policy the coming years.

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Research team(s)

Project type(s)

  • Research Project

Cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease: motoric, cognitive and linguistic aspects of sentence production. 01/10/2016 - 13/01/2019

Abstract

Research has shown that Alzheimer (AD) patients manifest deterioration in language production. The current (diagnostic) instruments for language assessment (in general, as well as in relation to dementia) largely focus on product measures, such as phrase length and number of errors. However, the processes leading to spoken and written text production provide insight into language ability as well. This research project aims to develop valid sentence production tasks that enable researchers and clinicians to adequately characterize the longitudinal decline of on-line written language production in AD. These aims will be addressed in three consecutive studies: 1. an exploratory study, 2. a cross-sectional study, and 3. a longitudinal study. Since findings from previous research indicate the need for a screening task that assesses multiple components of language, we will combine writing tasks that focus on motor (physical typing skills), cognitive (mind) and linguistic (language) aspects. Therefore, during an exploratory study we aim to develop a number of highly controlled sentence production tasks that assess a set of predefined cognitive and linguistic process aspects. Exploratory study In the exploratory study, we aim to initially develop 60 picture combination cards; groups of separate pictures that elicit a written sentence. During the experiment, participants are instructed to include the objects depicted when producing a sentence and to link them with a verb that fits the situation. The observation method used is keystroke logging via the in-house developed tool Inputlog, which is non-intrusive, time-saving, and hence cost-reducing, when compared to other tools or techniques. By using validated pictures we can easily predetermine the words participants will probably use when producing a sentence and hence monitor specific word characteristics that influence cognitive pauses. Recent explorations on related linguistic data proved the discriminatory power of determiners, nouns, verbs (and adjectives) for distinguishing between participant groups. Therefore, these word categories will be the main focus of the elicited sentences. Cross-sectional and longitudinal study Based on the findings of the exploratory study, the number of picture combination cards needed (via statistical techniques like Generalizability and Design study) will be reduced to an optimal minimum. In the experimental cross-sectional study patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), mild AD and a healthy control group will be involved. The participants will be asked to perform a brief copy task (motor and typing skills) and to produce sentences (cognitive and linguistic skills) based on randomly selected picture combination cards. Finally, in the longitudinal study, the cross-sectional study will be replicated after six and twelve months in order to document the (potential) cognitive decline. We will opt for mixed effects models in which the random effects of subjects, sentences and words are modeled. A secondary goal of this research project is to further automatize data analysis and report generation allowing clinicians to interpret the data instantly. Since we trigger predefined nouns, verbs and adjectives in our study, we should be able to further automatize the analysis and reporting via Inputlog.

Researcher(s)

Research team(s)

Project type(s)

  • Research Project

Care organisation, a rethinking expedition in search for sustainability (CORTEXS). 15/03/2016 - 31/12/2017

Abstract

The sustainability of health systems is under pressure from the sharp rise in the ageing population and a simultaneous reduction of public expenditures. A move towards a more demand-driven, integrated care system is widely seen as way to cope with these pressures. The necessary reconfiguration of the mainly supply-driven health care system of the Flemish Region requires a comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach. This research focuses on 'integrated care'.

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  • Research Project

Support and advice on the analyses and visualisation of Inputlog output & the preparation of a technical blueprint for the research project 'Literary writing 2.0'. 01/03/2016 - 31/03/2016

Abstract

Literary scholars working in textual scholarship study the genetics of literary texts. So far, they have done this on the basis of texts produced in an analogue manner. However, modern-day literature is made in a largely digital work environment. In our project 'Literary writing 2.0' we will investigate the consequences of this digital work process for research methods. We will do this by using our shared expertise on text editions and textual genetics (Huygens ING) and cognitive writing process research (University of Antwerp). In this project we describe the writing processes of four literary writers via the keystroke logging tool Inputlog (www.inputlog.net).

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Project website

Project type(s)

  • Research Project

Collaboration between cultural magazines in Flanders 01/02/2016 - 30/05/2016

Abstract

With this research project we aim to answer the central question: " How can the structural cooperation between the cultural journals be implemented on business- organizational level - taking into account the limited individual resources and with respect to the individual content, impact and audience of each magazine."

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Project type(s)

  • Research Project

Impact of fashion tourism on Antwerp 01/01/2016 - 31/12/2016

Abstract

The aim of this study is to gain more insight in the behaviour of the international tourist who visit Antwerp specifically for fashion. Through a descriptive study we will identify profiles of different groups of fashion tourists and examine both motives and behaviour. The goal is to have well-founded recommendations on how to respond to the specific needs of these different groups.

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Project type(s)

  • Research Project

Motoric, cognitive and linguistic writing process characteristics in Alzheimer's disease: A task validity, cross-sectional and longitudinal study. 01/10/2015 - 30/09/2019

Abstract

Research has shown that Alzheimer (AD) patients manifest deterioration in language production. This research project aims to develop complementary screening tasks that enable researchers and clinicians to characterize the longitudinal decline of on-line written language production in AD . These aims will be addressed in three consecutive studies: 1. a task-validity study, 2. a cross-sectional study, and 3. a longitudinal study. Since findings from previous research indicate the need for a screening task that assesses multiple components of language, we will combine writing tasks that focus on motor and cognitive and linguistic aspects. The more general screening tasks (i.c., describing two pictures depicting a situation) that focus on the cognitive and linguistic aspects need to be validated first. The quality of the elicitation, and consequently of the screening tool, will benefit from a careful validation of the tasks at hand. Based on the findings of the task validity study, we will design an experimental cross-sectional study involving patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), mild AD and a healthy control group. The observation method used, keystroke logging, is non-intrusive, time-saving, and hence cost-reducing, when compared to other diagnostic tools. Finally, in a longitudinal study, the cross-sectional study will be replicated twice (after 6 and 12 months) in order to document the (potential) gradual cognitive decline.

Researcher(s)

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Project website

Project type(s)

  • Research Project

Senior Leadership as an Organizational Determinant for the Creation of Technological Breakthroughs. 01/10/2015 - 30/09/2018

Abstract

Recently, the interest of both scholars and practitioners in the creation of technological breakthroughs has increased strongly. Despite the key claim in the literature that innovation activities need specific guidance from the top, the role of a firm´s senior leadership as a key antecedent for innovation and organizational renewal remains underdeveloped. To address this, the aim of this proposal is to develop an in-depth understanding to what extent and in what specific ways a firm´s senior leadership influences (1) its internal technological search and innovation activities and (2) how this possibly materializes into technological breakthroughs. The project considers as a firm's senior leadership both its top management team (TMT) and its Board of Directors (BoD). First, I will start with an exploratory approach aimed at developing an in-depth understanding of the organizational processes and mechanisms through which the role of a firm's senior leadership materializes into the creation of technological breakthroughs. Second, I examine to what extent TMT compositional characteristics lead to a differential effect on a firm's ability to create technological breakthroughs. Third, I consider the role of the board of directors and examine to what extent their interplay with a firm´s TMT carries (dis)synergetic effects for their creation. I will consider these topics within a high-tech setting and rely on patents to measure the creation of technological breakthroughs.

Researcher(s)

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Project type(s)

  • Research Project

Motoric, cognitive and linguistic writing process characteristics in Alzheimer's disease: a task validity, cross-sectional and longitudinal study. 01/10/2015 - 30/09/2016

Abstract

Research has shown that Alzheimer (AD) patients manifest deterioration in language production. This research project aims to develop valid screening tasks that enable researchers and clinicians to characterize the longitudinal decline of on-line written language production in AD over a 12- month period. These aims will be addressed in three consecutive studies: 1. a task-validity study, 2. a cross-sectional study, and 3. a longitudinal study. Since findings from previous research indicate the need for a screening task that assesses multiple components of language, we will combine writing tasks that focus on motor and cognitive and linguistic aspects. The more general screening tasks (i.c., describing two pictures depicting a situation) that focus on the cognitive and linguistic aspects need to be validated first. The quality of the elicitation, and consequently of the screening tool, will benefit from a careful validation of the tasks at hand. Based on the findings of the task validity study, we will design an experimental cross-sectional study involving patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), mild AD and a healthy control group. The observation method used, keystroke logging, is non-intrusive, timesaving, and hence cost-reducing, when compared to other diagnostic tools. Finally, in a longitudinal study, the cross-sectional study will be replicated at three different moments (0-6-12 months) in order to document the (potential) cognitive decline.

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Project type(s)

  • Research Project

Goldsmith and jewelery design - a relanceproject. 01/10/2015 - 30/09/2016

Abstract

This project represents a formal research agreement between UA and on the other hand the Province of Antwerp. UA provides the Province of Antwerp research results mentioned in the title of the project under the conditions as stipulated in this contract.

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Project type(s)

  • Research Project

Improving pre-university students' performance in academic synthesis tasks with Level up Instructions & Feedback Tool (LIFT). 01/09/2015 - 31/12/2020

Abstract

This project represents a formal research agreement between UA and on the other hand the client. UA provides the client research results mentioned in the title of the project under the conditions as stipulated in this contract.

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Research team(s)

Project type(s)

  • Research Project

Keystroke logging in writing: solving privacy issues. 15/01/2015 - 31/03/2015

Abstract

When using keystroke logging not only do we register the written text, also the writers' activities in other Windows programs. Sometimes these activities might be privacy related (e.g., a password to access webmail or Facebook). Therefore, we have developed a version of Inputlog that restricts the full logging to MS-Word, and complements that with restricted logging (only environment and time information - no input) in all other environments accessed.

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  • Research Project

The Role of a Firm's Senior Leadership in the Creation of Technological Breakthroughs. 01/01/2015 - 31/12/2019

Abstract

Recently, both researchers and practitioners have developed an increased interest in the creation of technological breakthroughs. This Odysseus proposal attends to this topic by studying the role and influence of a firm´s top managers and its boards of directors in the process of their creation. Whereas the role of a firm's senior leadership is crucial in the management of innovation and the creation of breakthroughs, still most what we know of their role in this process remains in its infancy. To address this, this Odysseus proposal aims to develop an in-depth understanding to what extent and in what specific ways a firm´s senior leadership influences its (1) internal technological search processes, (2) its external collaborations for innovation, and (3) how this possibly materializes into technological breakthroughs.

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  • Research Project

Senior Leadership as an Organizational Antecedent for the Creation of Technological Breakthroughs. 01/10/2014 - 30/09/2015

Abstract

The main aim of this project is to develop an in-depth understanding to what extent and in what ways a firm´s senior leadership deals with the trade-off between local and distant search, and how this affects a firm's search process and the creation of technological breakthroughs.

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  • Research Project

Change in Police Organizations: A study of commitment, communication, culture , leadership and participation. 21/08/2014 - 31/03/2015

Abstract

This project represents a formal research agreement between UA and on the other hand AMS. UA provides AMS research results mentioned in the title of the project under the conditions as stipulated in this contract.

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  • Research Project

Relocalisation of the existing industryzones at the Albert Channel. 01/07/2014 - 30/09/2016

Abstract

This project represents a formal research agreement between UA on the one hand and the Province of Antwerp on the other. UA provides the Province of Antwerp research results mentioned in the title of the project under the conditions as stipulated in this contract. The purpose is to define a tool kit that can be used to motivate and facilitate companies that are supposed to change location.

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  • Research Project

Care organisation, a rethinking expedition in search for sustainability (CORTEXS). 15/03/2014 - 14/03/2016

Abstract

The sustainability of health systems is under pressure from the sharp rise in the ageing population and a simultaneous reduction of public expenditures. A move towards a more demand-driven, integrated care system is widely seen as way to cope with these pressures. The necessary reconfiguration of the mainly supply-driven health care system of the Flemish Region requires a comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach. This research focuses on 'integrated care'.

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  • Research Project

Executives' social background, espoused and enacted organizational justice/fairness values, and long-run organizational outcomes. 01/01/2014 - 31/12/2017

Abstract

With this project, we aim to understand the impact of executives on organizational values and long-term organizational performance stability. The main goal of this project is to unravel how executives' social backgrounds affect organizational outcomes, such as long-term stability, through organizations' espoused and enacted values concerning justice/fairness.

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  • Research Project

Writing Process Analysis Tools for Chinese: Creating an instrumental basis for contrastive research. 01/01/2014 - 31/12/2016

Abstract

Inputlog is a keystroke logging tool to monitor written language production, developed at the University of Antwerp (www.inputlog.net) and used worldwide. Inputlog can handle most Western alphabets, including for instance Greek or Sami, without any other tuning than the selection of the appropriate regional setting and keyboard layout. But no easy way exists to represent the large number of Chinese logograms on a keyboard. However, there is a growing demand for tools to study the Chinese language and this includes a request to broaden the possibilities of Inputlog, both from Western researchers who study Chinese as from Chinese writing researchers.

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  • Research Project

Research in the field of "Organizational Adaptation & Renewal". 01/10/2013 - 30/09/2018

Abstract

The goal of the research plan is to contribute to a better understanding of how specifically organizations can accomplish organizational adaptation and sustain their competitive advantage in the face of environmental transitions, on a persistent basis. To accomplish this goal, it may be useful to differentiate between two levels of analysis: (a) the role of organizational conditions and (b) the innovation and adaptation activities in themselves.

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  • Research Project

In the mind's eye: does the effect of real versus stylized eye cues on cooperative behavior vary according to context and one's intrinsic motivation? A behavioral and fMRI study. 01/10/2013 - 30/09/2017

Abstract

The project proposes to investigate the neural processes along with the contingencies that underlie the relation between eye cues and cooperative behavior in social dilemmas. We differentiate between real and stylized, (iconic) eye cues, and we propose that only the former provide social information and are capable of eliciting trust by affecting the brain's social cognition system (temporo-parietal junction, medial frontal cortex, and amygdala), while the latter, inducing a feeling of being watched, influence a person's reputation concerns by affecting neural activity in the lateral PFC. In addition, we expect that the effect of real versus stylized eyes (and underlying patterns of brain activation) should vary according to a person's social value orientation (SVO). We test these hypotheses in three different contexts, a simultaneously and sequentially played prisoner's dilemma game and an assurance game because these three games differ in their motives of greed and fear that typically drive people towards non-cooperation. We test if real versus stylized eye cues curb fear and greed respectively (thereby increasing cooperation), depending on a person's SVO.

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  • Research Project

Organisational conditions and innovation. 01/10/2013 - 30/09/2016

Abstract

The need for organizational adaptability and renewal can hardly be overemphasized in today's increasingly complex and rapidly changing organizational environments. Although organizational adaptability has formed one of the fumdamental themes of organizational and strategy scholars over the past decades, there is still a limited understanding of why same organizations adapt effectively to changing environmental circumstances, while others do not. To address this, the goal of the research plan is to contribute to a better understanding of how specifically organizations can accomplish organizational adaptation and sustain their competitive advantage in the face of environmental transitions, on a persistent basis. To accomplish this goal, it may be useful to differentiate between two levels of analysis: (a) the role of organizational conditions and (b) the innovation and adaptation activities in themselves.

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  • Research Project

Cognitive writing process characteristics in Alzheimer's disease. 01/10/2013 - 30/09/2016

Abstract

In the current project we would like to test for the very first time the complementary diagnostic accuracy for AD, mainly focusing on cognitive and linguistic aspects that characterize the process of written language production. By adding a complementary process dimension to study language production, we hope to further improve the quality, efficiency and effectivity of this potential diagnostic tool. Moreover, on a more fundamental level, we would like to investigate analysing techniques to discriminate (grapho)motor activities from cognitive activities during writing. The study consists of two procedural

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  • Research Project

Development commercial strategy and instruments for the commercialization of Science Park University of Antwerp and incubator Darwin. 01/07/2013 - 30/09/2014

Abstract

This project represents a formal research agreement between UA and on the other hand the Province of Antwerp. UA provides the Province of Antwerp research results mentioned in the title of the project under the conditions as stipulated in this contract.

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  • Research Project

Research on the fashion industry in Flanders. 19/12/2012 - 31/07/2013

Abstract

This project represents a formal research agreement between UA and on the other hand FFI. UA provides FFI research results mentioned in the title of the project under the conditions as stipulated in this contract.

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  • Research Project

The economic impact of the Antwerp Diamond sector. 01/12/2012 - 01/09/2013

Abstract

This project represents a formal research agreement between UA and on the other hand the AWDC. UA provides the AWDC research results mentioned in the title of the project under the conditions as stipulated in this contract.

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  • Research Project

The innovation capacity of creative enterprises. 01/11/2012 - 31/08/2016

Abstract

This project represents a research agreement between the UA and on the onther hand IWT. UA provides IWT research results mentioned in the title of the project under the conditions as stipulated in this contract.

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  • Research Project

The impact of executive characteristics, compensation and institutional context on organizational behavior and performance: an integrated study in the banking industry. 01/10/2012 - 31/08/2015

Abstract

Our main objective is to develop and empirically test a comprehensive research model concerning the combined effects of executive characteristics, compensation, and institutional context on organizational behavior and performance. More in particular, we focus on banks' risk-taking behavior, how it is jointly driven by executive characteristics, compensation, and institutional context, and how it affects banks' performance. In general, risk-taking involves investments with uncertain outcomes. One example of banks' risk-taking behavior concerns mortgage-backed securities, because of the limited experience banks have with the probabilities and potential outcomes of these investment as opposed to more traditional loans (Stulz, 2008).

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Knowledge Positioning System (KPS). 01/10/2012 - 30/09/2014

Abstract

This project represents a formal research agreement between UA and on the other hand the ESF. UA provides ESF research results mentioned in the title of the project under the conditions as stipulated in this contract.

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  • Research Project

"Verfondsing" within the arts sector. 16/08/2012 - 30/11/2012

Abstract

This project represents a formal research agreement between UA and on the other hand the Flemish Public Service. UA provides the Flemish Public Service research results mentioned in the title of the project under the conditions as stipulated in this contract.

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  • Research Project

Scientific chair Sustainability. 01/06/2012 - 31/05/2017

Abstract

This project represents a formal research agreement between UA and on the other hand Deloitte Services and Investments . UA provides Deloitte Services and Investments research results mentioned in the title of the project under the conditions as stipulated in this contract.

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  • Research Project

Foundry of the Future - Towards a competitive foundry industry for the next generation castings. 01/06/2012 - 31/05/2016

Abstract

This project represents a research agreement between the UA and on the onther hand IWT. UA provides IWT research results mentioned in the title of the project under the conditions as stipulated in this contract.

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  • Research Project

Top management team attention patterns in the banking sector: A comprehensive multilevel research model 01/01/2012 - 31/12/2012

Abstract

In order to gain insights in the origins and (continued) existence of today's crisis, it is highly relevant to explore the attention patterns of top management teams in banking. This project concerns the empirical testing of a comprehensive multilevel research model on these attention patterns, including antecedents and outcomes, as well as contextual variables. It shows the potential to contribute significantly to both theory and practice.

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    • Research Project

    Cultural Governance. 13/12/2011 - 12/12/2012

    Abstract

    This project represents a formal research agreement between UA and on the other hand the Flemish Public Service. UA provides the Flemish Public Service research results mentioned in the title of the project under the conditions as stipulated in this contract.

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    • Research Project

    Exploring "new career" models and coaching. 15/11/2011 - 31/12/2012

    Abstract

    This project represents a research contract awarded by the University of Antwerp. The supervisor provides the Antwerp University research mentioned in the title of the project under the conditions stipulated by the university.

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      • Research Project

      Science parks and Business Incubators in Belgium, Brazil and Italy: Strategic Choices, Institutional context and Performance indicators. 04/11/2011 - 03/11/2012

      Abstract

      This research project aims to develop an integrative model to examine the relationship between an incubator's/science park's strategic choices (e.g., service focus, service customization, technology and knowledge transfer) and its performance (e.g., start-up growth and survival, innovation). Moreover, the influence of institutional contexts in developed versus emerging/transition countries is taken into account by looking at two settings: developed (that is, Belgium and Italy) versus emerging/transition (that is, Brazil) countries. With this project's funding, we aim to develop a primary database which can be used to examine these relationships further.

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      • Research Project

      Scientific Chair "Purchasing & Value Creation". 01/11/2011 - 31/10/2015

      Abstract

      The core activity of the chair is research on purchasing strategy, supply management and procurement from a value creation perspective. The chair will act as an academic knowledge hub for signaling global trends and developments to purchasing and supply chain professionals. By providing high quality research and sharing the research results, the chair will stimulate discussions among the supply management professionals and interested parties.

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      • Research Project

      New perspectives on polyphony: Alamire's musical legacy revealed through high-technology research tools. 01/10/2011 - 30/09/2015

      Abstract

      This project represents a research agreement between the UA and on the onther hand IWT. UA provides IWT research results mentioned in the title of the project under the conditions as stipulated in this contract.

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      • Research Project

      Feasability of the creation of an International Diamond Centre Antwerp (IDDCA). 19/09/2011 - 28/02/2013

      Abstract

      The feasibility study will look into different aspects needed to create and run IDDCA such as, but not limited to, interaction with the industry, business focus, financial plans, organisational structure, legal aspects, ICT set up and security.

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      • Research Project

      The role of oxytocin and the moderating effect of social context and personality on human affiliative behavior. 01/07/2011 - 30/06/2015

      Abstract

      The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has been shown to play a crucial role in establishing trust and cooperation due to its anxiolytic effect and regulation of social affiliation. Recent research indicates that individual differences in OT metabolism correlate with differences in several aspects of social behavior (including empathy, stress reactivity, and an increased likelihood of autism). In addition, the effect of OT on trust and social affiliation appears to depend on contextual inputs and vary with personal characteristics. The purpose of the current study is therefore threefold. First, we intend to investigate the moderating influence of the social context and personality traits on the behavioral consequences of extraneous nasal OT (versus placebo) administration. Second, we want to gain more insight into the underlying neural mechanism by which OT induces trust and affiliation. Specifically, we explore by means of fMRI and DTI the functional and anatomical connectivity between the neural correlates of fear regulation (amygdala) and social approach (nucleus accumbens). Third, we explore if there might be a relation between low plasma levels of OT and/or the workings of OT on the one hand, and social delinquency on the other hand. Gaining knowledge into the interaction between a hormone that regulates fear and social affiliation, the social environment, and delinquent behavior, might prove to be useful in developing appropriate clinical and behavioural therapies for youth who suffer from social integration problems.

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      • Research Project

      Chinese enterprise clusters in our neighbouring countries: analysis and benchmark of the factors underlying the appearance of these clusters. 01/05/2011 - 30/06/2012

      Abstract

      This project represents a formal research agreement between UA and on the other hand Province of Antwerp. UA provides Province of Antwerp research results mentioned in the title of the project under the conditions as stipulated in this contract.

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      • Research Project

      Determinants of innovation and growth of small and medium-sized enterprises and self-employed persons (SMESESAP). 15/01/2011 - 14/07/2014

      Abstract

      This project represents a formal research agreement between UA and on the other hand the Federal Public Service. UA provides the Federal Public Service research results mentioned in the title of the project under the conditions as stipulated in this contract.

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        • Research Project

        Preparing an evaluation framework for investment in cultural heritage applications in Flanders. 15/01/2011 - 15/07/2011

        Abstract

        This project represents a formal research agreement between UA and on the other hand the Flemish Public Service. UA provides the Flemish Public Service research results mentioned in the title of the project under the conditions as stipulated in this contract.

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        • Research Project

        Credit for the Libraries in Social and Human Sciences (Faculty of Applied Economics). 01/01/2011 - 31/12/2018

        Abstract

        This project represents a research contract awarded by the University of Antwerp. The supervisor provides the Antwerp University research mentioned in the title of the project under the conditions stipulated by the university.

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        • Research Project

        A dynamic study of the antecedents and consequences of demographic diversity in organizations: the moderating role of organizational culture. 01/01/2011 - 31/12/2014

        Abstract

        The goal of this research is twofold. First, we want to gain insight in the antecedents of diversity, by investigating sorting processes and entry and exit of individuals into and out of organizations. Second, we want to investigate the consequences of diversity, thereby discovering the circumstances that allow diversity to have positive effects for teams or organizations, or vice versa, the circumstances in which diversity will be disadvantageous. In studying both research questions, we will focus on the role of an organization's human resource management style as a main driver of the dynamics of demographic diversity.

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        • Research Project

        Research into the depot needs and requirements of heritage managers in the province of Antwerp: quantitative and qualitative field analysis as a preparatory study for a regional depot policy. 01/01/2011 - 31/12/2011

        Abstract

        This project represents a formal research agreement between UA and on the other hand Provincie Antwerpen. UA provides Provincie Antwerpen research results mentioned in the title of the project under the conditions as stipulated in this contract.

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        • Research Project

        Writing professional texts from multiple (digital) sources. 01/10/2010 - 30/09/2013

        Abstract

        Writing a business text, e.g. a report for a merger, is a very complex activity. Previous writing research had lead to various well-known writing process models. However, these models are primarily based on educational environments and single texts. Professional writers on the other hand often use multiple (digital) sources to succesfully write their business texts. It is important, especially in this digital age, in which (written) communication performs an important role, to describe these writing competences. This project, therefore, addresses the following research question: What writing processes and strategies are involved when professional writers write business texts from multiple (digital) sources?

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        • Research Project

        The ecology of competition law. 01/10/2010 - 31/07/2012

        Abstract

        Despite heated debates about excessive rule burden and bureaucracy at the national and EU level, little quantitative work has been done to determine the exact amount of rule birth, change, and death events. This is where we seek to make our contribution. In line with other ecological theories, such as organizational ecology, we posit that histories of formal rules have general statistical properties, which implies that they evolve in systematic ways. More specifically, we use a detailed counting method for the 1962-2008 time period in order to determine the exact amount of competition rules, both at the EU and at the national level (the Netherlands). This approach allows us to not only identify intrinsic dynamics within the same population of rules (density-dependence), but also to test for dynamics between different populations of rules (cross-density effects), such as the relationship between the EU and its member states. Finally, we apply the same ecological approach to the enforcement of competition law, which in our view is also directly related to rule dynamics.

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          • Research Project

          Francqui Chair 2010-2011 Prof. Geert Van Hootegem. 01/10/2010 - 30/09/2011

          Abstract

          Proposed by the University, the Francqui Foundation each year awards two Francqui Chairs at the UAntwerp. These are intended to enable the invitation of a professor from another Belgian University or from abroad for a series of ten lessons. The Francqui Foundation pays the fee for these ten lessons direcltly to the holder of a Francqui Chair.

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          • Research Project

          Strategic choices, institutionalism and the business incubator phenomenon: how does the institutional context influence the relationship between an incubator's strategic choices and its performance? 15/09/2010 - 14/09/2011

          Abstract

          This project aims at examining the following: (1) the relationship between strategic positions and incubator performance, and (2) the influence of the institutional context on this relationship. Our objective is to capture different institutional contexts by empirically examining incubators in various European countries. The study frames within the fields of strategic management, innovation management and entrepreneurship and international business. This part of the project specifically deals with creating a European incubator data base.

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          • Research Project

          Fast-growing companies: an analysis of determinants and growth incentives. 01/09/2010 - 31/08/2014

          Abstract

          This project is a doctoral study on the high-growth firms. The aim is to analyse as well internal variables (owner characteristics, business processes) as external variables (context-specific ) which determine the high growth of firms. The results of this doctoral study should help to optimize the sercives which VOKA-Chamber of Commerce can offer to high-growth firms.

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          • Research Project

          Comparative study of cross-cultural consumer behaviour on luxury goods between China and Europe. 25/08/2010 - 24/06/2011

          Abstract

          This project represents a formal research agreement between UA and on the other hand EU. UA provides EU research results mentioned in the title of the project under the conditions as stipulated in this contract.

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          • Research Project

          Comparative police studies in the EU (COMPOSITE). 01/08/2010 - 31/07/2014

          Abstract

          The overall objective of the project is to contribute to more efficient and effective policing in the EU, by outlining roadmaps for police forces in each country that lead to enhancement of both individual police force capability and performance and joint European operations.

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          • Research Project

          The influence of text representation on the reading-during-writing process 01/07/2010 - 31/12/2014

          Abstract

          Professional writers frequently interrupt the text production process to monitor their text produced so far. So far, this process of 'reading during writing' has not been studied. However, recent technological developments enable us to study reading behavior during writing. In our research we explore how (re)reading might shift the cognitive orientation of the writing process and the relation between reading and writing on the one hand and reading and revising on the other.

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          • Research Project

          The impact of strategic sourcing on strategic and financial performance: An empirical analysis of Belgian and Dutch industrial companies 01/07/2010 - 31/12/2014

          Abstract

          Based on the resource based view, this study examines the relationships between sourcing strategy, sourcing efforts, and strategic and financial performance. A large scale survey with manufacturing firms will test the relationships using LISREL. It is expected that a firm's sourcing strategy contributes directly to the sourcing efforts, which are expected to impact positively on performance. The study will contribute to theory building in purchasing and supply management in an innovative way.

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          • Research Project

          Research park Waterfront / Incubator UBIS. 18/06/2010 - 31/10/2011

          Abstract

          The critical success factors of science parks are identified via a literature review and a benchmarking study of Belgian and Dutch science parks. A SWOT analysis will be executed from the perspective of Antwerp. recommendations will be presented.

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          • Research Project

          Digital television for All (DTV4ALL). 13/04/2010 - 31/12/2011

          Abstract

          This project represents a formal research agreement between UA and on the other hand Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona. UA provides Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona research results mentioned in the title of the project under the conditions as stipulated in this contract.

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          • Research Project

          Network evolution and human behaviour. 01/01/2010 - 31/12/2014

          Abstract

          This is a fundamental research project financed by the Research Foundation - Flanders (FWO). The project was subsidized after selection by the FWO-expert panel.

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          • Research Project

          Merging writing process data with lexica. 01/01/2010 - 31/12/2012

          Abstract

          During the last 20 years writing research has focused explicitly on the analysis of writing processes. More recently, logging programs (like Inputlog) enabled researchers to record process data (e.g. keystrokes & pauses) in much more detail without interfering the cognitive activities. In the current project we aggregate the logged process data from the letter level (keystroke) to the word level by merging them with lexica and Naturally Language Processing tools. This creates a very valuable basis for more linguistically oriented writing process research.

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          • Research Project

          WRITINGpro: Knowledge Center for Writing Process Research 01/01/2010 - 31/12/2011

          Abstract

          We would like to develop a Knowledge Center for Writing Process Research (WRITINGpro) in order to offer a digital platform to writing process research. The main aims of the Knowledge Center are to bring together methodological knowledge about writing process research and to offer a databank for writing process data (based on CHILDES). Website: logging tools, databank of writing process data, data collection, data analyses, FAQ and references.

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          • Research Project

          Research into the residence operation. 10/12/2009 - 31/12/2010

          Abstract

          Commissioned by the Agency Arts and Heritage of the Flemish Community, we will make an overview of all artist residencies in Flanders and all residencies abroad, with whom the Flemish Community cooperates. Next, a qualitative analyse will be made of the different types of residencies. Through qualitative interviews we will examine if these residencies also have an influence on the individual careers of artists. On this basis we will make some conclusions and recommendations for the Flemish government.

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          Getting a better understanding of the Chinese and Indian entrepreneurs as a strategic advantage for the province of Antwerp. 04/12/2009 - 31/10/2010

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          • Research Project

          Analysis of the strategic position of the Antwerp diamond sector. 04/12/2009 - 31/10/2010

          Abstract

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          • Research Project

          Text Reduction in Speech-Based Real Time Subtitling. 03/12/2009 - 31/12/2009

          Abstract

          Speech recognition-based writing has proven to be a valuable and quick method to provide (intralingual) subtitles for real time television programs. The often very fast speaking rates of the source material and the limited reading rates of the viewers, however, call for some extent of summarization and adaptation. The present research project tries to identify the ideal reduction degree for the subtitling of live programs. Two subsequent experiments focus on production as well as reception of real time subtitles.

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          • Research Project

          A contingency perspective on perceived tenant satisfaction of technology incubators 01/10/2009 - 30/09/2011

          Abstract

          To counter the high failure rate of small start-up firms in general and technology-based firms in particular, the nurturing of start-up firms in business incubators is often suggested. Although many incubator studies have been developed, a better understanding of which strategic, external and internal incubator variables result in a good "fit" and hence above-normal performace of technology incubators in an under-researched domain in incubator literature. The current research project tries to address this literature gap, grounding the project in criterion-specific contengency literature.

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          • Research Project

          Language Priming and Actual Behavior. 01/07/2009 - 31/12/2013

          Abstract

          Language influences behavior. This study focuses on experimental and field work to explore the effect of different languages in interaction with national culutres on behavior in an economic or business context. In so doing, this project is at the interface of Business / Economics, on the one hand, and Linguistics, on the other hand. This implies that new multidisciplinary territory will be entered.

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            • Research Project

            Individual differences is self-regulating behavior: a functional imaging study on brain processes substantiating goal-directedness, persistence, and adaptive behaviour. 01/07/2009 - 30/06/2013

            Abstract

            The project aims to gain insights into the origin of individual differences in impuls control and self regulation. We test the hypothesis that activity in three hypothesized brain regions correlates on the one hand with dopamine receptor gene polymorphisme, and on the other hand with stable personality traits reflecting motivated, persistent, and adaptive behavior.

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            • Research Project

            A transforming Cultural Industry: analysis of the evolution of the Flemish Music Industry since 1990. 01/07/2009 - 30/06/2013

            Abstract

            The music industry worldwide is going through a number of important changes. This research project proposes to: (1) map the most important changes in the music industry in Flanders since 1990, specifically regarding: 1. size and nature (aggregated sales and structure, defined as density and concentration) of the Flemish music industry and its different groups of actors; 2. the value chain of the Flemish music industry, also from a vertical perspective in terms of the contribution and rents of different levels in the industry chain; 3. with special attention for the characteristics and behaviour of the Flemish music consumer, and its impact on the horizontal (1) and vertical (2) evolution of the sector; 4. technological innovations influencing 1, 2, 3 and 4, with an emphasis on new (Internet-based) channels of distribution and methods for promotion (broadly defined); (2) confront a number of existing theories about transforming industries with the most conspicuous changes found, focusing on insights from industrial organization (economics) and organizational ecology (sociology).

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            Study on the value of the business centers in the province of Antwerp for the success of start-up entrepreneur - conclusions and recommendations. 05/06/2009 - 30/11/2009

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            An fMRI study investigating the determinants of cooperation in social dilemmas. 01/02/2009 - 31/12/2010

            Abstract

            This fMRI study aims to gain insight into how the neural substrate of cooperation is determined by environmental factors and personality. We hypothesize that prosocials, due to a more sensitive social brain, are more easily influenced by subtle environmental cues. We further investigate if judging a (non)cooperative partner activates emotional processing in prosocials, while it is cognitively processed by proselfs.

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            The protection of cultural property during armed conflict: towards an integral prevention strategy. 01/01/2009 - 31/12/2012

            Abstract

            During the 20th century a lot of prevention measures to tackle the destruction of cultural property during armed conflict were designed. However, the destruction and looting of cultural property tends to increase the last decennia. Therefore, this research will analyze what causes the failure of this strategy. A first phase of the research agenda is descriptive and explanatory. Bottom-up, starting from the different prevention measures, a typology will be designed, which will be then translated into a model strategy. A following phase will evaluate the former, top-down, starting from the model strategy, analysing two cases (Iraq and Kosovo).

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            Text Reduction in Speech-Based Real Time Subtitling. 01/01/2009 - 31/12/2010

            Abstract

            Speech recognition-based writing has proven to be a valuable and quick method to provide (intralingual) subtitles for real time television programs. The often very fast speaking rates of the source material and the limited reading rates of the viewers, however, call for some extent of summarization and adaptation. The present research project tries to identify the ideal reduction degree for the subtitling of live programs. Two subsequent experiments focus on production as well as reception of real time subtitles.

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            China, Belgium and the Netherlands: Economic opportunities and threats. 01/10/2008 - 30/06/2013

            Abstract

            The role of China in the world economy evolves rapidly. There is much uncertainty about the effects of the rise of China on the Belgian and Dutch economies. In this study, the effect of the rise of China on specific Belgian and Dutch enterprises and industries will be investigated in depth by collecting unique data that will be analyzed with advanced econometrics.

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              The process and effectivity consequences of knowledge diversity in management teams. 01/10/2008 - 30/09/2010

              Abstract

              Previous research has demonstrated that management team (MT) knowledge diversity acts as a two-edged sword: on the one hand highly diverse MTs will benefit from a broader range of relevant information and skills, on the other hand these teams often experience difficulties with the exchange and/or integration of the diverse knowledge within the team. In this study, we focus on the process and effectiveness consequences of MT knowledge diversity and we try to find out how internal MT processes are affected by knowledge diversity and how and in which circumstances MT knowledge diversity can boost firm performance. In various substudies, we investigate for instance the influence of the CEO in integrating diverse knowledge within the MT, the impact of MT knowledge diversity on innovation capacity, and the individual decision power of the MT members.

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              Business Models for User Centred Products (MADE4U). 01/07/2008 - 30/06/2012

              Abstract

              The project aims to research the key business and technology aspects for production and commercialisation of highly Personalised Spectacles for peoples with visual disabilities. This involves two principal components: design and manufacturing of personalized spectacles (lenses and frames) and a new business model for bringing them to market.

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              The influence of the text produced so far on writing processes of professional writers. 15/05/2008 - 30/09/2010

              Abstract

              In this research we will build on a paradigm developed in the course of Leijten's doctoral work. In order to investigate how professional writers manage the balance between monitoring previous text an generating further text, writers are asked to generate sentence completions while at the same time monitoring and correcting errors in the sentence stem. Previous research has found that writers vary widely in the extent to which they prioritise the sentence completion part of the task or the error correcting part of the task. This study will use a modified version of this task to examine whether theses differences are related to the working memory capacity of writers and to individual differences in self-monitoring style. Eye movements will be analysed to determine how writers allocate their attention during the task. Data will be used to calculate an index of the writers' processing style.

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              Multilingual Corpus of Writing Processes 01/01/2008 - 31/12/2009

              Abstract

              During the last 20 years writing research has focused explicitely on the analysis of writing processes. More recently, logging programs enabled researchers to record process data (e.g. keystrokes&pauses) in much more detail without interfering the cognitive activities. In this project we want to initiate an online corpus of multilingual writing processes. Also an XML-schema will be designed to create a basis for a common standard in this domain.

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              The economics of theatre arts: a comparison of England, France, the Netherlands and Flanders. 01/12/2007 - 31/12/2012

              Abstract

              Three related questions are studied in the context of a comparison of England, France, the Netherlands and Flanders for the case of theatre arts: 1) What are the institutional differences in the context of arts in the Netherlands and Flanders against the background of the Anglo-Saxon and continental European approaches? 2) What are the similarities and differences between successful and unsuccessful arts producers in the Netherlands and Flanders? 3) To what extent can differences in the drivers of successes adn failures be explained by the institutional differences?

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                Strategy and organisation. 01/10/2007 - 30/11/2011

                Abstract

                This project represents a research contract awarded by the University of Antwerp. The supervisor provides the Antwerp University research mentioned in the title of the project under the conditions stipulated by the university.

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                  Demographic diversity and the evaluation of social entities: the ecological study of the behaviour and performance of teams, organizations, industries, networks and communities. 01/10/2007 - 30/09/2008

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                  Demographic diversity and the evolution of social entities. The ecological study of the behaviour and performance of teams, organizations, industries, networks and communities. 01/07/2007 - 30/06/2012

                  Abstract

                  This project deals with the antecedents and consequences fo demographic diversity in the realm of teams, organizations, industries, networks and communities. Demographic diversity refers to groups of people or organizations. Both can be more or less diverse in terms of e.g. age, gender and personality (people) or age, size, strategy (organizations). The key questions are where this extent of diversity comes from and what it implies for the behaviour and performance of the social entities involved. The proposed research programme is groundbreaking by providing centre stage to demographic diversity of social entities. Moreover, it is unique in its multi-method, multi-disciplinary and multi-level approach. First, theory will be developed by building models using mathematical and simulation techniques, whilst the empirical studies will analyze novel panel datasets by applying advanced multivariate statistical tools. Second, insights from different economic and social science disciplines will be combined and integrated, notably economics, public administration, economics, economic geography, political science, psychology and sociology. Third, the multi-level perspective will be explored systematically, implying that interactions across different levels of analysis will be investigated.

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                  Publication of the Monograph "Writing and Speech Recognition: Observing Error Correction Strategies of Professional Writers". 11/06/2007 - 31/12/2007

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                  Live subtitling with speech technology: procedure for quality control. 01/04/2007 - 31/12/2009

                  Abstract

                  In this project we observe and analyse 'respeakers' who us speech recognition to produce live subtitles. Main perspectives: 1. Speech technology: how does the use of speech technology influence the production (process) of subtitles and their quality (e.g., delay, error analysis, error prevention, training)? 2. Subtitles: how can we characterize subtitles produced in the context of live subtitling? 3. Cognitive writing processes: how can we descrive the cognitive processes related to pause and revision behavior of the respeakers?

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                  Live subtitling with speech recognition: procedures for quality improvement. 01/01/2007 - 31/12/2008

                  Abstract

                  Logging software is used for an analysis of live subtitling procedures for television, in which a respeaker makes use of speech technology to produce subtitles following both the block and the scrolling methods. The study will look into the efficiency of the speech recognition process, as well as the subtitles produced by the two methods, and the cognitive writing processes they involve. The ultimate purpose of the project is to improve logging and to elaborate a procedure for the quality improvement of live subtitling.

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                  Expert Assignment "Work Care". 15/12/2006 - 30/09/2007

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                  Study concerning the financing and the financingpossibilities for the cultural heritage sector in the framework of the masterplan Cultural Heritage. 15/12/2006 - 30/06/2007

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                    The influence of emotions on decision-making in social dilemmas. 01/10/2006 - 30/09/2010

                    Abstract

                    The proposed research draws on insights in economics, psychology, and the neurosciences to better understand why human decision-making so often deviates from game-theoretic predictions. The specific aim is to examine by means of fMRI what the underlying roles of emotional versus cognitive brain networks might be while people are choosing a cooperative versus a competitive strategy in a social dilemma. The role of personality and the context of the dilemma are also investigated.

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                    Quality assessment of digital educational materials about professional writing skills (QUADEM). 01/10/2006 - 30/09/2009

                    Abstract

                    The objective of the present project is to develop a method for Quality Assessment of Digital Educational Materials (QuADEM) in the area of professional and academic writing skills. It is our experience that many institutions have been developing digital educational materials that do not fully explore the possibilities of the online environment, both in the design and implementation processes. Often educational materials developed 'for paper' are copied into a digital environment without being fully adapted to this new learning context. In the present project we want to establish a method to assess the quality of digital educational materials aking into account a multiple set of perspectives. Drawing on a number of new modules that will be developed and implemented for specific niches of business, academic and technical (foreign) language writing, the present project will result in a procedure that should enable the participating institutions to add a 'quality label' to the materials they develop for their writing centers. Although the Quality Method is developed in the context of (professional) writing education, the aim of the present project is to develop a method that is transferable to other domains of online learning because of its generic character. The project will result in a detailed quality procedure to effectively and efficiently evaluate digital learning modules. The Quality Method will be supported by the publication of a book as well as by the development of a web based administration tool to guarantee an easy implementation of the quality circle. To explore the relevant components of the Quality Method we set out to integrate a wide range of different perspectives on quality assessment, different methods for assessing quality, different facilitating tools and different materials.

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                    Strategic innovation capacity: the role of knowledge diversity and social capital of management teams. 01/10/2006 - 10/01/2009

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                    Organization and strategy. 01/10/2006 - 30/09/2007

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                    Audit of the museums in Kortrijk. 15/08/2006 - 15/02/2007

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                      Recent trends in the conference market. 15/06/2006 - 01/07/2006

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                        The audiovisual workfield in Flanders. 01/05/2006 - 15/11/2006

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                          The Turn-to-Market in academic spin-offs. 01/03/2006 - 31/12/2007

                          Abstract

                          This study focuses on an academic spin-off's transition from a scientifically and technologically driven mindset to a commercial orientation. More specifically we investigate the influence of the alliance network at foundation on the likelihood and the timing of the transition to a commercial orientation. The research is carried out in the biotechnology sector.

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                          Globalisation, regionalisation and social and economic inequality (GRESI). 01/01/2006 - 31/12/2015

                          Abstract

                          This is a fundamental research project financed by the Research Foundation - Flanders (FWO). The project was subsidized after selection by the FWO-expert panel.

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                          Networking innovation actors in the medical device sector. (IN-Jection) 14/12/2005 - 14/12/2007

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                          Research on cultural heritage education in Flanders. 13/12/2005 - 01/12/2006

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                          Development of applications based on writing research. 01/10/2005 - 30/09/2008

                          Abstract

                          Inputlog is a logging tool that enables researchers to log and analyse writing processes in detail.In this project we have planned to integrate more complex parsing rules to the program (using Bison and Flex). The parsing technique simplifies the overall program by decoupling the input and processing components and by providing a natural, modular structure. Furthermore, hiding the implementation details of the different analyses, not only results in a more readable program structure, but also creates a framework in which it is possible to get the different analyses in just one or two passes of the logging data. We will also implement this parsing techniques in new analyses and use it as a basis to integrate data from other logging applications (e.g., Morae). More information on: www.inputlog.net

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                          Studies in Writing: 'Writing and Digital Media' and 'Writing and Cognition' (book publications). 13/09/2005 - 31/12/2005

                          Abstract

                          Digital media has become an increasingly powerful force in modern society. This volume brings together outstanding European, American and Australian research in "writing and digital media" and explores its cognitive, social and cultural implications. The book is divided into five sections, covering major areas of research: writing modes and writing environments (e.g. speech technology), writing and communication (e.g. hypervideos), digital tools for writing research (e.g. web analysis tools, keystroke logging and eye-tracking), writing in online educational environments (e.g. collaborative writing in L2), and social and philosophical aspects of writing and digital media (e.g. CMC, electronic literacy and the global digital divide). In addition to presenting programs of original research by internationally known scholars from a variety of disciplines, each chapter provides a comprehensive review of the current state-of-the-art in the field and suggests directions for future research. This wide-ranging international volume presents the very best of current thinking in the field and will be indispensable to anyone doing or contemplating work in the area, both for established researchers as well as newcomers, including graduate students. More information: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/bookdescription.cws_home/707624/description#description

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                          Cognition versus emotion in strategy selection during ultimatum games and nested social dilemmas. The moderating role of individual differences. 01/05/2005 - 30/04/2009

                          Abstract

                          Deviations from economically "rational" decisions in anonymous, one-shot strategic interactions remain difficult to explain from a purely economic point of view. We propose an experimental study to investigate how strategy selection depends on the environmental context and individual differences. We hypothesize that (1) strategy selection depends on the extent to which the context of the interaction will activate the socio-emotional versus cognitive information processing networks in the brain, and (2) individual differences will influence strategy selection to the extent that they correlate with the activation of socio-emotional processing.

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                          The Impact of Embeddedness and HRM on Turnover and Performance in Professional Organizations. 01/05/2005 - 31/12/2006

                          Abstract

                          In professional organizations, overall organizational performance is largely determined by the behavior of individual employees (i.e. individual performance and turnover). In our study, we will focus on the determinants of turnover and on the impact of turnover on performance. An individual's demographic fit, as well as his or her relational embeddedness within the organization, in interaction with the organization's HRM systems, might impact on these variables. In order to study this, an extensive database will is needed.

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                          Development of Inputlog: A research tool for writing research. 01/05/2005 - 31/12/2006

                          Abstract

                          Inputlog is a logging tool that enables researchers to record the data of a writing session in Microsoft Word; to generate data files for statistical, text, pause and mode analyses; to play the recorded session at different speeds. In this project new functionalities will be added to the program enabling researchers to log input generated by speech recognition software (i.c. Dragon Naturally Speaking, Scansoft) and combine the logging with process data generated by other registration programs (i.c. eye tracking and Morae).

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                          15/01/2005 - 28/03/2005

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                            Black economic empowerment in Sout Africa : The case of the wine industry. 01/01/2005 - 31/12/2006

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                            15/12/2004 - 30/09/2005

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                              The role of networks in the development of market-innovative capabilities in academic spin-offs. 01/10/2004 - 16/01/2006

                              Abstract

                              The increasing importance of academic spin-offs in innovation and economic growth is widely recognized today. The development of a scientific discovery into a successful company, however, still follows a problematic trajectory that has not often been the subject of any research. This study aims to look into this development trajectory and, more specifically, in the role of networks in shaping it. The main argument is that academic (or research-based) spin-offs, in order to be considered innovative and successful, need to develop commercial competencies that allow them to translate the technological innovation embodied in their know-how and intellectual property into real market innovation and superior customer value. This process is complicated by the fact that academic spin-offs operate under conditions that are different from those experienced by other start-ups. Especially the switch from a technological/scientific mindset to a commercial one poses a considerable problem. Because of the pitfalls in the development trajectory, it has been recognized before that external parties are instrumental in supporting the change from science to business (Lorenzoni and Lipparini, 1999). Networks have been seen as conduits of information (Kogut and Zander, 1992) and social exchange generating trust (Shane and Cable, 2000). However, their specific role in helping research-based spin-offs overcome the barriers in their evolution to successful companies has not been looked into yet. The study consists of two main parts. The first one is explorative and consists of case studies of young spin-offs of the University of Antwerp and their networks. This will lead to a model of external networks' influence on spin-off development. The second phase aims at testing this model on a large sample of start-ups in Europe using SEM and related techniques. The help of industry associations will be asked.

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                              The effect of strategic change on organizational performance: a dynamic model of strategic fit. 01/10/2003 - 30/09/2005

                              Abstract

                              In my doctoral research I develop and test a dynamic model of strategic fit. By drawing on the arguments of the punctuated equilibrium theory I propose that firms should change their strategic orientation when a dominant design emerges. I test this proposition using longitudinal data from plastics manufacturers in the CD segment of the polycarbonates industry.

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                              Public Availability of Reliable Financial Statements and Ownership and Control Data of Polish Companies. 01/01/2003 - 31/12/2003

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                              01/01/2003 - 31/12/2003

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                              01/05/2002 - 30/04/2004

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                              The influence of speech recognition on the writing process. A contrastive study of the influence of speech recognition, dictating devices and keyboard and mouse on the writing process. 01/01/2002 - 31/10/2006

                              Abstract

                              In this research project we will focus on the one hand on elements that characterise the writing processes of the speech-recognition mode, classical-dictating mode and keyboard-and-mouse mode, by conducting contrastive experiments between these three modes. On the other hand, we would like to contribute to the fundamental theory building on cognitive writing processes by describing universal cognitive processes raised in our study.

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                              Economic reform and development in South Africa: the tension between equity and economic efficiency - the case of agriculture and agri-business. 17/12/2001 - 17/12/2004

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                              Gate to Financing. 01/04/2001 - 30/06/2006

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                              The influence of highlighted hyperlinks on the foreign language reading process: a cognitive approach. 01/01/2001 - 31/07/2005

                              Abstract

                              In texts on paper, highlights are used to indicate structure or important features of content. In online texts, the function of highlights is different: their purpose is to indicate hyperlinks and to attract the reader's attention. The question is whether this new function of highlights in a text causes a fundamental change in foreign language reading. The present research aims at investigating whether highlighted hyperlinks have an influence on the word acquisition, text comprehension and the underlying cognitive processes that support reading.

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                              Analysis of capital structure in transition economies - the Polish case decision-making, institutional constraints, efficiency implications and policy conclusions. 11/12/2000 - 11/12/2003

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