In most European and American countries developers must complement a building with a required minimum of parking spaces. However, this supply driven policy is mostly providing too much parking spaces, causing negative effects such as unnecessary construction costs making apartments less
affordable, reducing the density of cities, stimulating car ownership which is against the policy goals of living in urban cities and the environment for the quality of life and the spillover of the scare urban space.
Hence parking policy is internationally shifting to more adaptive parking norms to wider policy goals of accessibility, the quality of urban space and life, environment, mobility, local economy and city management TDM tools of parking sharing, smart growth development, unbundled parking and
maximum parking requirements are used to efficient use of parking resources in parking management.
State of the art academic research focuses on maximum parking requirements near public rail transit, but also suggests that housing typology and tenure, local density, bus services are playing a bigger role in car ownership than rail access. Therefore, further research is needed on residential parking development in relation to public car parks and mobility hubs
In order to study residential parking demand an exploratory study by elite and expert interviews will be conducted followed by a quantitative discrete choice experiment to refine the residential demand variables and to uncover individual preferences of public car parks and mobility hubs in order to have an impact on parking demand and parking standards?
The goal of this research is to determine if parking requirements are still in relation to the actual parking demand near car parks, new mobility types and mobility hubs and if parking requirements can be reduced or maximized in new residential developments near car parks and neighbourhood mobility hubs. These results will be most relevant for private developers and car park operators, urban planners and policy makers to gain new insights to manage residential parking demand with the increasing attention of the environmental aspects that improve quality of life and urban space.