Cephas Maalila Malimba
Language variations in Sub-Sahara Africa and the Role of Indigenous Languages
Zaterdag 8 Mei 2021 - 9u-10u
Exclusief voor studenten en personeelsleden van de Academische Lerarenopleiding van de UAntwerpen
The main purpose of this paper is to discuss and appreciate the multi-lingualism in Sub-Sahara Africa which to a greater extent has become a global reality to a point where, even the so called mono-lingual nations in the world are no longer as thought. Arising from this reality, most societies and nations are now working towards promoting multi-lingualism based on the premise that language is a ‘resource.’ There is therefore a strong belief that all languages, regardless of the status in society or nation contribute to the collective fund of the wisdom of the nation. As such, all languages despite their size or whether a major or minor language must be treated as national wealth as they promote national cohesion. It has prominently been arqued that a multi-lingual of bi-lingual person is better intergrated in society that a mono-lingual person.
The emergency of Pan-African vernacular languages in later years saw the rise of shared languages in Sub-Sahara African countries which served as lingua-franca in these countries which to date are referred to as cross-boarder or trans-boarder languages. To this effect, there are many languages that arose such as Swahili, Zulu, etc. İn Sub-Sahara Africa, there are many languages in each country that have brought about a number of political undertones and has in many cases lead to tribal wars and political divisions. For example, in Rwanda, the genocide was ignited by tribe which is similar to Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethopia among other nations. This paper will discuss in detail selected countries and the number of languages in each and how it has affected these countries and divided them politically and the role of indigenous languages.
Keywords: cross-boarder, dog languagemarginalized language, mono-lingual, multi-lingual, tower of babel, trans-boarder.
The effects of the Coronavirus pandemic towards the delivery of Open Distance Learning Programs in Zambia: The Case of Kwame Nkrumah University
15 Mei 2021 - 9u-10u
The COVID-19 pandemic is
first and foremost a health crisis. Many countries have closed schools,
colleges and universities. The crisis crystallizes the dilemma policymakers are
facing between closing schools (reducing contact and saving lives) and keeping
them open (allowing workers to work and maintaining the economy). The severe
short-term disruption is felt by many families around the world: home schooling
is not only a massive shock to parents’ productivity, but also to children’s social
life and learning. Teaching in Zambia suddenly migrated to online and other
social media platforms available, on an untested and unprecedented scale. Kwame Nkrumah University has in the past
decade delivered Open and distance learning through scheduled face-to-face
contacts with learners mainly in-service teachers upgrading their
qualifications. Student were eventually
subjected to virtual lessons, submission of assessments online with a lot of
trial and error and uncertainty for both academic staff and students as no one
Zambia recorded its first confirmed COVID-19 case in mid-March, 2020 and as of 24th March, 2021 nearly 86, 993 additional cases have been reported out of 1, 211, 098 tests conducted across the country and a cumulative total of 1, 187 deaths. In an effort to contain the virus, the government of Zambia took preventive measures, including closing schools. This in turn disrupted learning for over 4.2 million students. To mitigate the impact of this situation and ensure students continued to learn, Kwame Nkrumah embarked on a robust staff capacity building training in information and communication technology. However, this was without difficulty as the majority of staff had little knowledge on the use of technology in distance learning let alone the students. Compounded by this challenge, the majority of the students come from the most rural parts of the country where internet connectivity is either poor or not available.
Most tertiary institutions like Kwame Nkrumah University were not prepared for this pandemic, however the University embarked on an infrastructural investment in ICT to cope with the challenges and effects of COVID 19. The program aimed at promoting continuous learning for students during the stay-at-home orders, along with support for a sustainable and safe learning environment across the country and university when it would re-open. Additionally, the interventions aimed at fortifying the university’s education system to help the institution respond effectively to future crises. Despite the intervention measures implemented by the university, many students could still not fully benefit from distance learning as many still lag behind in their learning progress due to a number of factors. Therefore, to deal with these challenges, the Directorate of Open Distance Education organised support measures to accelerate the provision of learning modules to quickly bring students up to their level and conduct remedial learning for those with specific problems. This discussion will focus in detail the overall effects brought about the coronavirus pandemic in the delivery of education at Kwame Nkrumah University.
Keywords: Covid 19, dilemma, in-service, pandemic, open distance education